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SOWO 804: Introduction to Organizational Theories Lecture II


SOWO 804: Introduction to Organizational Theories Lecture II Tamara H. Norris, Instructor Management and Community Practice School of Social Work – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SOWO 804: Introduction to Organizational Theories Lecture II

SOWO 804 Introduction to Organizational
TheoriesLecture II
  • Tamara H. Norris, Instructor
  • Management and Community Practice
  • School of Social Work
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3550

Nature of Human Service Organizations (HSOs)
  • HSOs can be contradictory to clients and workers
  • Workers have a goal to help people
  • HSOs offer intrinsic and extrinsic benefits
  • HSOs can also cause frustration
  • Clients are the raw material?
  • HSOs process, sustain, or attempt to change

Human Services as Moral Work
  • Moral judgments and statements of social work
  • Diagnostic labels----statements of social worth
  • Allocation of resources
  • Rationing
  • The Deserving

Gendered Work
  • Women have been historically assigned caretaker
  • Patriarchal ideology---women as nurturers
  • Women are the majority of frontline workers
  • Conflict between womens contributions to social
    work and HSO norms and values
  • Devaluation of womens work in human services in
    earnings, positions, and social
  • Legitimacy issues lack of resources, poor
    services often provided to clients who are mostly
    poor women

The Primacy of Institutional Environment
  • HSOs conform to dominant cultural, social
    symbols, and belief systems of interest groups
    in their environments
  • HSOs access to resources is dependent on their
    adherence to environmental norms
  • HSOs technical proficiency matters less than the
    ability to accommodate the escalating, often
    competing diversity in their service areas
  • HSO rules and legitimacy are in flux

Moral Entrepreneurs and Cyclical Legitimacy
  • HSOs influence public perceptions of their
  • parents as partners
  • consumers as potential welfare cheats
  • Cycles occur within the communities of HSOs
  • Support for Aid to Families with Dependent
    Children (AFDC)
  • 1996 Welfare Reform Personal Responsibility and
    Work Reconciliation Act (PRWRA)
  • PRWRA changed the perception of welfare from
    allowing dependency to mandating work

Human Service Technologies as Enactment of
Practice Ideologies
  • Technologies are socially approved and sanctioned
  • State Plans are best judgments of best
    practices that are frequently resource-based
  • Measures of effectiveness involve moral choices
    that are part of practice ideologies
  • Effectiveness is also politically determined How

Client Reactivity and Service Trajectory
  • Clients can react and participate
  • The reactions of neither clients nor staff can be
    completely controlled
  • Many HSO services are compartmentalized and
    delivered in discrete ways
  • The diagnosis of a clients needs may not take
    into account his/her total ecology. Why is this
    so often so?

Client Compliance
  • Selection of clients who are amenable to services
    enhances control and responsibility
  • Limiting and constraining client options improves
  • Social control is the result
  • Is such control the best approach?

Centrality of Client-Worker Relations
  • Client-Worker relations are the core of HSOs
  • The quality of these relations are critical to
    service delivery and successful outcomes
  • Best cooperation is based on trust!
  • But trust is impersonal and difficult to maintain
    due to the often irregular contact between HSOs
    and clients

HSO Forms as Moral Practices The
Case of Welfare Departments
  • Need to understand how HSOs select and implement
    moral rules that guide their work
  • HSOs and their workers participate in this
    process (micro interaction)
  • HSO rules are also driven by political interests
    (macro interactions)
  • Moral assumptions are a constant in the welfare

Theoretical Approaches
  • Rational-Legal Model (RLM)
  • HSOs have a clear and specific set of goals and
    their internal structure and processes represent
    a rational design to attain them
  • Internal divisions of labor, clear definitions of
    roles, and levels of authority are formalized
  • The RLM cannot handle multiple and changing
    environmental influences

Human Relations Approaches (HRAs)
  • HSO effectiveness is a function of its goals and
    the personal needs of workers
  • The quality of leadership is an important
    determinant of workers job satisfaction
  • Burn-out is an increasing problem in todays HSOs
  • HRAs, alone, cannot overcome political and
    economic constraints

Negotiated Order and Political Economy
  • Work structures are a product of negotiated
    order among the participating actors (clients
  • Services must have legitimacy, power, and
    resources (money, clients, and personnel)
  • Political economy understates values and
    ideologies that transcend power and money in
    shaping HSO behavior

Marxist and Institutional Theory
  • Labor in HSOs is controlled through hierarchy,
    standard operating procedures, and the deskilling
    of jobs
  • The market economy impacts HSOs
  • Rules from the institutional environment
    determine the HSO structure
  • Societal and HSO values are the driving forces
  • HSOs uphold rules by coercion and/or imitation

Population Ecology
  • Groups and organizations that have similar
    characteristics and structure
  • Focuses on the evolution of HSOs founding,
    disbanding, and change in population
  • Population ecology is sometimes inappropriately
    applied to HSOs and generates inaccurate
    interpretations of HSO environments

Organizational Theory and
  • Classical Organization Theory
  • Scientific Management Theory (Taylor 1917)
  • Four Basic Principles
  • Find one best way to perform task
  • Match each worker to the appropriate task
  • Supervise workers, using reward and
    punishment as motivators
  • Managements role is planning and control

Organizational Theory (contd)
  • Bureaucratic Theory
  • Clear lines of authority and control
  • Hierarchical structure of power
  • Division of labor and specialization
  • Rules for stability and uniformity
  • Administrative Theory
  • Emphasize universal set of management principles
    that can be applied to all organizations

Neoclassical Organizational
  • Hawthorne Experiment
  • Barnard (1968)
  • Organization is a system of consciously
    coordinated activities
  • Success depends on leaders ability to create a
    cohesive environment
  • Authority is derived from subordinates
    acceptance, not hierarchical power structure

Neoclassical Organizational Theory
  • Limited Rationality Model--Simon (1945)
  • Workers may respond unpredictably to managerial
  • The scientific method has to be rigorously

Contingency Theory
  • Chandler (1962)
  • Form follows function
  • Organizations act in a rational, sequential
    linear manner to adapt to changes in the
  • Ability to adapteffectiveness
  • Lawrence and Lorsch (1969)
  • Managers should be given authority over their

Systems TheoryLudwig von Bertalanffy (1928)
  • All components of an organization are
    interrelated, changing one variable might impact
    many others
  • These relationships can be nonlinear
  • Nonlinearitycomplexity

Organizational Structure
  • Systems Theory and Organizational Structure
  • Relationship Patterns Among Organ. Parts
  • Integration
  • Differentiation
  • Structure of hierarchical relationships
  • Formalized policies, procedures, and controls
  • Relationship Between Organization and Environment
  • Complex environmentsgreater differentiation
  • Two-way flow of information and energy

Organizational Birth and Growth (contd)
  • Cameron and Whetten (1983)
  • Four Stages of Organizational Life Cycles
  • Entrepreneurial
  • Collectivity
  • Formalization and Control
  • Elaboration
  • Land and Jarman (1992)
  • Entrepreneurial and Bifurcation
  • Reversal in strategy toward rule standardization

Organizational Birth and Growth (contd)
  • Child and Keiser (1981)
  • Growth Can Occur in Four Organizational Models
  • Striving for dominance with existing field/domain
  • Diversification into new domains
  • Technological advancements
  • Improved managerial techniques

Organizational Decline
  • Biological Determinism( Boulding1950)
  • Irreversible trend toward death
  • Biological Life Cycle
  • Peak and decline or never reach peak
  • Signs of Decline
  • Loss of morale, leadership, planning, innovation
  • Conflict, secrecy, rigidity, scapegoating
  • Conservatism, over-confidence

Organizational Turnaround
  • Biebault (1982)Four Stage Model
  • Change in management
  • Evaluation
  • Implementing emergency actions and stabilization
  • Return to growth
  • Five Process DomainsZammuto and Cameron (1985)
  • Defense and Offense
  • Creating new domains
  • Consolidation and Substitution

Final Theory Components
  • The Learning Organization (Senge 1990)
  • Continually enhancing ability to create
  • Community (Godz 1992 Peck 1987)
  • Organization acting as a community
  • Organizational Morality (Adam Smith 1937)
  • Accountability, amorality, legalistic, ethics