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Introduction to Health Psychology

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Introduction to Health Psychology The Changing Field of Health Patterns of disease and death Infectious versus chronic disease Escalating costs of medical care What ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Health Psychology


1
Introduction to Health Psychology
2
The Changing Field of Health
  • Patterns of disease and death
  • Infectious versus chronic disease
  • Escalating costs of medical care

3
What is health?
4
World Health Organization Definition of Health
(1948)
  • A complete state of physical, mental, and social
    well-being and not merely the absence of disease
    and infirmity.

5
Changing Models of Health
6
The Biomedical Model
  • Dominant paradigm of the medical profession
  • Can be characterized as
  • Reductionistic model
  • Single-factor model
  • Mechanistic model

7
Evolving View of Diseases
  • Anatomical pathology
  • Disease is localized in anatomy (16th to 18th
    Centuries)
  • Tissue pathology
  • Specific tissues could become diseased while
    others remain healthy (Late 1800s)

8
  • Cellular pathology
  • Life resides in cells and so cells must be the
    place to look for disease (19th century)
  • Germ theory
  • Discovery that particles in the air that could
    not seen (e.g., bacteria) could cause disease
    (19th century)

9
The Biopsychosocial Model
  • Favoured paradigm of health psychology
  • Can be characterized as
  • Multidimensional model
  • General systems model
  • Intuitive

10
Biopsychosocial Model
  • Psychological component
  • Behaviour (adoption and maintenance)
  • Emotional (feelings)
  • Cognition (thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes
    schemas)
  • Personality characteristic ways of thinking and
    feeling

11
The Biopsychosocial Model
12
Clinical Implications of the Biopsychosocial Model
  • Interdisciplinary team approach to assessment and
    diagnosis
  • Prevention and treatment should consider all
    three factors
  • An effective patient-practitioner relationship
    can improve treatment

13
Health Psychology Research
  • Examples of studies
  • Immune function (Glaser et al.)
  • Psoriasis (Kabat-Zin et al.)
  • Breast cancer (Spiegel)
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