Introduction%20to%20Educational%20Research%20(4th%20ed.)%20C.%20M.%20Charles/Craig%20A.%20Mertler - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Introduction%20to%20Educational%20Research%20(4th%20ed.)%20C.%20M.%20Charles/Craig%20A.%20Mertler

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Introduction to Educational Research (4th ed.) C. M. Charles/Craig A. Mertler Chapter 8 Analyzing Research Data and Presenting Findings – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction%20to%20Educational%20Research%20(4th%20ed.)%20C.%20M.%20Charles/Craig%20A.%20Mertler


1
Introduction to Educational Research (4th ed.) C.
M. Charles/Craig A. Mertler
  • Chapter 8
  • Analyzing Research Data and Presenting
    Findings

2
Qualitative versus Quantitative Data
  • Qualitative data
  • Analyzed inductivelythought process using logic
    to make sense of observations
  • Goal is to uncover patterns, themes, categories,
    etc.
  • Quantitative data
  • Analyzed mathematically
  • Goal is to describe data, show degree of
    relationship or difference, determine
    likelihood that sample findings also exist in
    population

3
Analyzing Ethnographic Data
  • Differs from the generic description of
    qualitative analysis
  • Research questions often emerge after data
    collection (and even analysis) have begun they
    are not foreseen
  • Conclusions are drawn from a broad view of human
    behavior
  • Analytical process is somewhat iterative and
    circular
  • Identify topics (through data collection)
  • Cluster topics into categories
  • Form categories into patterns
  • Draw explanations (conclusions) from patterns
  • This on-going analytical process is known as
    logico-inductive or hypothetico-inductive
    analysis
  • A very subjective processbias is a strong
    possibility

4
Analyzing Quantitative Data
  • Key is the separation of the researcher from the
    participants and the dataobjectivity!
  • Parametersnumerical indices that describe
    populations
  • Statisticsnumerical indices that describe
    samples

parameters
populations
statistics
samples
5
What Statistics Are Used For
  • To summarize data in order to reveal what is
    typical and atypical about a group
  • To show relative standing of individuals in a
    group
  • To show relationships among variables
  • To show similarities and differences among groups
  • To identify error inherent in sample selection
  • To test for significance of findings
  • To make inferences about a population

6
Descriptive Statistics
  • Numerical indices and procedures that summarize
    and simplify data about samples
  • Measures of central tendency
  • Mean (M)
  • Median (Mdn or Md)
  • Mode (Mo)
  • Measures of variability
  • Range (R)
  • Variance (s2)
  • Standard deviation (s or SD)

7
Descriptive Statistics (contd.)
  • Measures of relative position
  • Percentile rank (ile or PR)
  • Stanine
  • Converted scores (z-score, T-score,
    grade-equivalent, etc.)
  • Measures of relationship
  • Pearson correlation coefficient (r)
  • Many other correlation coefficients

8
Inferential Statistics
  • Numerical indices and procedures used to make
    inferences about a population based on
    information from a sample
  • Error estimates
  • Confidence intervals
  • Tests of significance
  • Significance of correlation
  • Significance of differences between means
    (t-tests, F-tests, etc.)

9
Cautions in Using Statistics
  • Dont try to do too much...
  • Stay within your skills and knowledge of
    statistics!
  • Your research questions and/or hypotheses should
    guide your analysis
  • Statistical significance vs. practical
    significance

10
Presenting Your Findings
  • Research findings are the information that
    results from your analysis
  • Findings from qualitative data analysis are
    usually presented as summary statements and
    discussion about the patterns which were observed
  • Findings from quantitative data analysis are
    typically presented in narrative form as well as
    visually (in tables or graphs)

11
Applying Technology
Web sites covering topics related to data analysis
  • Dr. Trochims discussion of "Data Preparation"
    (http//trochim.human.cornell.edu/kb/statprep.htm)
  • Dr. Trochims discussion of "Descriptive
    Statistics" (http//trochim.human.cornell.edu/kb/s
    tatdesc.htm)
  • Dr. Trochims discussion of "Correlation"
    (http//trochim.human.cornell.edu/kb/statcorr.htm)
  • Dr. David W. Stockburgers online statistics
    textbook (http//www.psychstat.smsu.edu/sbk00.htm)
  • Dr. David W. Stockburgers bibliography and
    statistics web resources (http//www.psychstat.sms
    u.edu/introbook/biblio.htm)
  • WebStat online statistical analysis program
    (http//www.stat.sc.edu/webstat)
  • Dr. Trochims interactive page for "Selecting
    Statistics" (http//trochim.human.cornell.edu/sels
    tat/ssstart.htm)
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