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Interwar Period: Russia

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Interwar Period: Russia Objectives Comprehend the factors that contributed to Russian foreign policy during the interwar years. Describe the factors that influenced ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Interwar Period: Russia


1
Interwar Period Russia
2
Objectives
  • Comprehend the factors that contributed to
    Russian foreign policy during the interwar years.
  • Describe the factors that influenced Russian
    military doctrine during the interwar period

3
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4
Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead
5
Russian Revolution
  • In February 1917, citizens of St. Petersburg led
    a mass protest against food shortages, living
    conditions and the Tsarist regime.
  • Nicholas ordered the police and military to
    intervene, however the military was no longer
    loyal to the Tsar.
  • By October , with chaos widespread over 80,000
    troops mutinied from the army to join the rioters
  • Faced with this crisis, Tsar Nicholas abdicated
    his throne, leaving Russia without a head of
    state.

6
Russian Revolution
  • One person keen to take advantage of the chaotic
    state of affairs was Lenin who saw the
    opportunity to lead his party, the Bolsheviks, to
    power
  • By the end of October 1917, every key building in
    St. Petersburg was under Bolshevik control.
  • Shortly after the October Revolution, the Russian
    Civil War broke out between the 'Reds'
    (Communists) and the 'Whites' (Nationalists and
    other anti-Bolshevik groups).
  • After a bloody four year struggle Lenin and the
    Reds won, establishing the Soviet Union in 1922

7
Stalins Consolation of Power
  • With all opposition gone, Stalin consolidated
    power. In 1928 installed a system of central
    planning, which dictated everything from where
    factories should be built to how farmers should
    plant their crops.
  • During the 1930s, Stalin sought to eliminate all
    potential opposition. In 1933, he created the
    Central Purge Commission, which publicly
    investigated and tried members of the Communist
    Party for treason. In 1933 and 1934, 1,140,000
    members were expelled from the party.
  • As many as 3 million Russians were killed.

8
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9
Soviet Military Structure
  • In 1936, in response to perceived Red Army
    opposition to his policies, Stalin conducted a
    purge of the military.
  • Lasting almost 2 years the purge eliminated over
    35,000 officers (half of their high ranking
    officers).
  • This left the Red Army inexperienced and deathly
    afraid of Stalin. He believed that political
    loyalty was far more important than military
    capability.
  • Stalin favored space over a strong defensive line

10
Soviet Military Strategy Air Force
  • Doctrine centered on the Deep Battle
  • Soviet Union began the interwar period with the
    weakest Air Force, but by World War II had built
    a relatively effective force from the ground up.
  • Two very innovative Soviet air theorists emerged
    in the period
  • Mikhail Frunze (1885 - 1923)
  • Mikhail Tukhachevski (1893 - 1937)

Worlds 1st Airborne Forces Combat Support
Centered
Airpower
11
The German Connection
  • From 1925 -1933 German Air Officers taught at the
    Soviet General Staff College
  • Germany tested new weapons designs (Versailles
    Treaty)
  • Germany trained new Soviet pilots
  • Spanish Civil War Russia commits
  • 900 aircraft, 1000 men to conflict
  • 1939 Non-Aggression Pact

12
Soviet Air Force Eve of WWII
  • From 1938 to 1941 another series of purges
    eliminated any experience in the Russian
    military, especially in the air force (75 of Red
    Air Force officers disappeared between 1937-39)
  • Massive and never ending reorganizations
  • Given the complexity of strategic bombers and her
    industrial capability, Russia focused exclusively
    on tactical aircraft.
  • Russia would use its tactical air force in
    delaying strikes in front of the German advance
  • The Kalinin K-7 was a real Russian Bomber
    designed in 1933 by WW-I aviator Konstatin
    Kalinin. 
  • Top speed 145 mph
  • Flew 11 test flights before crashing
  • Kalinin was later tried for treason and executed

13
Interwar Period Russia
X
  • Battle proven (Spain)
  • Reliable Allies privy to military plans
  • Consistency of command and organization
  • Technologically advanced
  • Industrial base to produce highly- technical
    weapons

X
X
X
X
14
Objectives
  • Comprehend the factors that contributed to
    Russian foreign policy during the interwar years.
  • Describe the factors that influenced Russian
    military doctrine during the interwar period
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