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Communism and Joseph Stalin

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Title: Write an identification for Benito Mussolini. Last modified by: Carol Freeman Created Date: 11/16/2007 9:05:33 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Communism and Joseph Stalin


1
Communism and Joseph Stalin
  • What were Stalins changes to the Leninist
    ideology?
  • What split the communist world apart?

2
November 29What do you know about Joseph Stalin?
3
The Soviet Union in the Interwar period
4
Key Terms
  • New Economic Policy (NEP)
  • Politburo
  • Leon Trotsky
  • Five-year plan
  • Collectivization
  • The Great Purge

5
Lecture Outline
  • Lenin
  • A. NEP
  • B. Politburo
  • Stalin
  • A. Five-Year Plan
  • B. Collectivization
  • C. Great Purge

6
New Economic Policy
  • In March 1921, Lenin abandoned war communism, in
    which the government had extensive control of the
    economy, in favor of his New Economic Policy
    (NEP).
  • The NEP was a modified version of the old
    capitalist system.
  • Peasants were allowed to sell their produce
    openly. Retail stores could be privately owned
    and operated.

7
NEP (con)
  • Heavy industry, banking, and mines remained in
    the hands of the government.
  • The NEP saved the Soviet Union from complete
    economic disaster, but it was meant to be a
    temporary retreat from the goals of communism.

8
What is the Politburo?
  • It is a seven-member committee that became the
    leading policy-making body of the Communist Party
    in Russia.
  • When Lenin died in 1924, there was a power
    struggle among the members of the Politburo.

9
Who is Leon Trotsky?
  • Leon Trotsky led one of the groups in the
    Politburo. He was also the commissar of war.

10
Leon Trotsky
  • He wanted to end the NEP and launch Russia on a
    path of rapid industrialization chiefly at the
    expense of the peasants.
  • He also wanted to spread communism abroad and
    believed that the revolution in Russia would not
    survive unless other nations adopted communism.

11
The other group
  • The other group in the Politburo wanted to focus
    on building a socialist state at home and
    continue Lenins NEP.
  • This group believed that rapid industrialization
    was too radical a plan and that such a plan would
    lower the peasants standard of living.

12
Joseph Stalin
  • He was the general secretary of the Communist
    Party and he used this power to make him a
    dictator by 1929.

13
Stalins Changes to Leninism
  • Stalin believed that historical progress had come
    about because of the state controlled by the
    Communist Party.
  • Class enemies remained a constant threat to the
    socialist society and communist state.

14
Stalins Changes to Leninism
  • Subordination of all foreign communist parties,
    and later states, to the needs of the Soviet
    Union. Other communists were expected to serve
    the interests of the USSR and its leaders.

15
Five-Year Plans
  • He ended the NEP in 1928 and launched his first
    Five-Year Plan, which set economic goals for
    five-year periods.
  • Their purpose was to transform Russia virtually
    overnight from an agricultural into an industrial
    country.

16
Collectivization
  • The first five-year plan focused on the
    production of armaments and capital goods such as
    heavy machinery and collectivization of farms.
  • It was a system in which private farms were
    eliminated and the government owned all of the
    land while the peasants worked it.

17
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18
Reactions to collectivization
  • Many peasants actively resisted it. They would
    rather hoard crops or kill livestock, than have
    them taken.
  • By 1930, 10 million peasant households had been
    collectivized. Four years later, roughly 26
    million family farms had been collectivized into
    250,000 units.

19
Effects of Stalins leadership
  • The hoarding of food and slaughter of livestock
    by peasants resisting collectivization resulted
    in famine. 10 million peasants died in the
    famines of 1932 and 1933.
  • Anyone who resisted Stalin was sent to the
    gulags, forced labor camps in Siberia.
  • Much of the social legislation passed in the
    1920s was overturned, including equal rights for
    women.

20
The Great Purge
  • Occurred in the 1930s
  • Stalin removed the Old Bolsheviks and other
    opponents by putting them on trial and
    condemning them to death.
  • Stalin also purged many army officers, diplomats,
    union officials, party members, intellectuals,
    and numerous ordinary citizens.
  • An estimated 8 million Russians were sent to
    gulags, from which they never returned.
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