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Major Military and Political Leaders in World War II


Title: Major Military and Political Leaders in World War II Author: shannon Last modified by: admin Created Date: 4/14/2011 3:20:31 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Major Military and Political Leaders in World War II

Major Military and Political Leadersin World War
Adolf Hitler
  • Born April 20, 1889
  • In Braunau am Inn, Austria
  • He was born to Alois and Klara Hitler
  • Hitler came from an abusive family
  • He feared and disliked his father but was a
    devoted son to his mother.

Early Life
  • Not a great student and dropped out of school
    when he was 16.
  • Hitler spent a great deal of his early years in
    the city of Linz in Upper Austria.
  • Linz was his favorite city and he had expressed
    his wishes to be buried there.
  • Aspired to be an artist
  • Was twice denied into the Vienna Academy of Fine

Hitler in WWI
  • 1914 Hitler was screened for Austrian Military
  • Classified as unfit due to inadequate physical
  • At the outbreak of WWI, Hitler volunteered for
    the German Army
  • Joined the 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry
  • wounded in October 1916, and was gassed two years
  • his bravery in action was rewarded with the Iron
    Cross, Second Class, in December 1914, and the
    Iron Cross, First Class (a rare decoration for a
    corporal), in August 1918.
  • Hitler felt satisfied with war
  • He found discipline and comradeship satisfying
    and was confirmed in his belief in the heroic
    virtues of war.

Rise to Power
  • After WWI Hitler joined the National-sozialistisch
    e Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (Nazi).
  • 1921 became leader of the party
  • 1923-Beer Hall Putsch
  • Hitler spends 9 months in Jail
  • Writes Mein Kampf which combines elements of
    autobiography with an exposition of Hitler's
    political ideology.
  • Jan 30th 1933, he becomes Chancellor of Germany.

Personal Notes
  • Hitler did not eat meat
  • Gave up drinking beer (and all other alcohols)
  • Married his long-time mistress Eva Braun on their
    death bed
  • Had a half-sister and two nieces. One of which
    he drove to suicide

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill
  • born Nov. 30, 1874, Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire,
    Eng.died Jan. 24, 1965, London
  • as prime minister (194045, 195155) rallied the
    British people during World War II and led his
    country from the brink of defeat to victory

Life and Times
  • Officer in the British Army.
  • Served in British India, the Sudan, and the
    second Boer War
  • Accomplished writer
  • Received a Nobel Prize for literature
  • Churchill was also a Historian and artist.

  • Churchill was at the forefront of British
    politics for fifty years
  • Held many political and cabinet positions over
    the years.
  • During WWI he served as Minister of Munitions,
    Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of
    State for Air.
  • Interwar years held several position with the
    British government.

Winston Churchill
  • During the 30s Churchill was a serious advocate
    for rearmament due to what he saw as dangerous
    German advances.
  • In May of 1940, Churchill succeeds Neville
    Chamberlain as Prime Minister of Britain.
  • His steadfast refusal to consider defeat,
    surrender or a compromised peace helped inspire
    British resistance, especially during the
    difficult early days of the War when Britain
    stood alone in its active opposition to Hitler

Benito Mussolini
  • Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (1883-1945)
  • He was born in Dovia, Italy
  • His father Alessandro Mussolini was a blacksmith
    and a socialist, while his mother Rosa Mussolini,
    was a devoutly Catholic school teacher.

  • Owing to his father's political leanings,
    Mussolini was named Benito after Mexican
    reformist President Benito Juárez, while his
    middle names Andrea and Amilcare were from
    Italian socialists Andrea Costa and Amilcare
  • Graduated from a teaching school wherein after he
    taught elementary school
  • Fulfilled his military requirements in 1904 and
    returned to teaching for another 4 years

  • In 1919, he founded fascist political group in
  • Credited as one of the founders of fascism
  • 1922 Mussolini became the 40th Prime Minister of
  • Mussolini was among the founders of Italian
    Fascism, which included ultraconservative
    elements of nationalism, corporatism,
    expansionism, social progress, and state
  • Once in power Mussolini wished to be referred to
    as Il Duce.
  • Benito soon began his dictatorship by erasing all
    political parties except for the Fascist

  • 1936 invades Ethiopia
  • 1936-1939 Active intervention on the side of
    Franco in the Spanish Civil War
  • Il Duce aligns Italy with the Germans
  • In 1940 declares war on Britain and France
  • Invades France
  •  1943, he was overthrown by the Fascist Grand
    Council and imprisoned, but later rescued by the
  • 1945 Il Duce is executed

William Lyon Mackenzie King
  • December 17, 1874 July 22, 1950)
  • Born in Kitchener Ontario
  • His maternal grandfather was William Lyon
    Mackenzie, first mayor of Toronto and leader of
    the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1837

  • A Liberal with 21 years in office, he was the
    longest-serving Prime Minister in British
    Commonwealth history
  • Was the tenth Prime Minister of Canada beginning
    in 1921
  • Served four terms
  • Highly educated
  • Earned 5 university degrees

  • Mackenzie King entered the war a week after
    Britain and France
  • Exercising Canadas Autonomy under the Statute of
  • Did not initially enact conscription fearing
    divide that occurred during WWI
  • Canada's major role in supplying food, raw
    materials, munitions and money to the
    hard-pressed British economy, training airmen for
    the Commonwealth.
  • After the fall of France enacts Total War
  • To rearm Canada he built the Royal Canadian Air
    Force as a viable military power

  • After the start of war with Japan in December
    1941 the government oversaw the Japanese-Canadian
    internment on Canadas west coast
  • After the War King helped found the United
    Nations in 1945

Joseph Stalin
  • Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin
  • 18 December 1878 5 March 1953)
  • Born in the town of Gori, Georgia.
  • At 7 contracted smallpox
  • By 12 his left arm was permanently damaged by
    horse and carriage accident

Rise to Power
  • joined Lenin's Bolsheviks in 1903
  • Stalin was conscripted by the Russian army to
    fight in World War I, but was deemed unfit for
    service because of his damaged left arm
  • A disciple of Vladimir Lenin, he served in minor
    party posts and was appointed to the first
    Bolshevik Central Committee (1912)
  • After Lenin's death (1924), Stalin overcame his
    rivals and took control of Soviet politics

Rise to Power
  • In 1928 he inaugurated the Five-Year Plans that
    radically altered Soviet economic and social
    structures and resulted in the deaths of many
  • In the 1930s he contrived to eliminate threats to
    his power through the purge trials and through
    widespread secret executions and persecution
  • Pre-World War II he signed the German-Soviet
    Nonaggression Pact (1939), attacked Finland (
    Russo-Finnish War), and annexed parts of eastern
    Europe to strengthen his western frontiers

  • When Germany invaded Russia (1941), Stalin took
    control of military operations. He allied Russia
    with Britain and the U.S
  • In November 1943, Stalin met with Churchill and
    Roosevelt in Tehran. The parties later agreed
    that Britain and America would launch a
    cross-channel invasion of France in May 1944,
    along with a separate invasion of southern
    France. Stalin insisted that, after the war, the
    Soviet Union should incorporate the portions of
  • Stalin bio