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Title: Politics


1
Politics Country PresentationsDani Saad
  • Pgs 55-64 (Textbook)
  • World Wars

2
WWI
  • Beginning of WWI is generally marked by the
    assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz
    Ferdinand on June 28, 1914.
  • The reaction to the assassination sent European
    powers into war.
  • However, even before Ferdinand was killed,
    conflict had been brewing for years.
  • Europe soon divided into two distinct
    hostilities Triple Alliance (Germany,
    Austro-Hungry, Italy) and the Triple Entente
    (Great Britain, France, Russia)
  • Germany was yearning for a place among the
    worlds superpowers
  • The triple alliances main concern was that
    Russia would expand their power in the Balkans
  • Commercial rivalry, disputes over colonial
    possessions, and the naval arms race between GB
    and GER.
  • Naval arms race is a parallel situation to cold
    war nuclear arms race
  • German planning sought to avoid a two front war
    by quickly defeating France before turning
    against Russia.

3
WWI Continued
  • The mood in most societies was of extreme
    nationalism (often racist)
  • Throughout Europe, expectations were that the war
    would be short, and the troops would be home by
    Christmas.
  • The German offensive into France was conducted
    according to the Schlieffen Plan -gt German armies
    in the West would move through Belgium and
    through Northern France (towards Paris)
  • Germanys attack did not go as planned and France
    was not defeated quickly.
  • The firepower of modern weapons never before seen
    in battle brought battles to a standstill.
  • By October of 1914 a front line of trenches,
    barbed wire and machine guns extended from Swiss
    Border to the English Channel

4
Quote/Pic
  • The lamps are out all over Europe we shall not
    see them lit you again in our lifetime.
  • - British Foreign Minister Sir Edward Grey

5
Continued
  • Germany made a decision to expand their submarine
    campaign and threaten Britains naval blockade.
  • This expansion was one of the reasons the United
    States decided to become involved
  • On April 12, 1917 the U.S. declared war.
  • In the east, military defeat and economic chaos
    led to the collapse of the Russian war effort.
  • The Romanov dynasty was overthrown and the
    political situation in Russia changed
    drastically.
  • With the eastern front secured, Germany
    transferred forces west for a final offensive
    aimed at defeating GB and France before the US
    could mobilize.
  • The offensive was launched on March 21. 1918, and
    it failed with heavy casualties.
  • By September Germany was near defeat and their
    economy was destroyed due to the war effort.
  • Fearful of domestic unrest and even further
    casualties, Germany surrendered and on November
    11, 1918 the German government signed the TOV

6
Consequences
  • 13 million people died with millions more
    wounded.
  • German General described WWI as total war
  • Three empires collapsed - Austro-Hungry,
    Russian, Ottoman
  • New countries emerged Yugoslavia,
    Czechoslovakia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia,
    Lithuania
  • Russian Revolution brought change to government
    and ideology that would change Russia forever
    politically.
  • There was concern over the emergence of fascism
    as a major political movement.
  • Nationalism did not diminish but rather
    intensified as minorities were angered over how
    the war was settled and the terms of the TOV
  • The United States emerged as a global power but
    turned to isolationism with respect to European
    Affairs
  • Soviet Union was looking to regain lost
    territories.
  • Most significant revisionist state was Germany.
    The TOV caused much bitterness in Germany which
    would be exploited by Hitler and the Nazi party.
    Ultimately, the war to end all the wars had
    merely set the stage for WWII

7
Interwar Period
  • Germany There were disagreements about how to
    treat Germany in terms of punishment was forced
    to pay for the entire cost of the war, however
    they already defaulted on their payments as early
    as 1920. Popular resentment against the TOV
    increased.
  • Russia Russia soon passed its revolutionary
    phase and emerged as a power within Europe.
    Increased economic hardship and the failure of
    the Russian government left the country
    vulnerable to revolutionary groups such as the
    Soviets. Vladimir Lenin returned from exile,
    promising prosperity and peace. Peace was
    short-lived and civil war soon broke out. In
    December 1922 the Soviet Union was officially
    established and within three years it was
    thriving economically. Lenins death brought
    Josef Stalin into power.

8
Interwar Period Continued..
  • Asia
  • The interwar period saw a rise of a new power in
    Asia Japan. The Meiji Restoration of 1868
    reopened Japan to the world after 200 years of
    isolation. Japan quickly embarked on a period of
    industrialization and established an empire on
    the mainland. Japan was gaining recognition and
    was given a permanent seat on the Council of the
    League of Nations.
  • China experienced a period of chaos and
    instability. Central rule broke down and
    provincial warlords assumed local power. Japan
    eventually intervened and the Chinese nationalist
    and communist forces battled the Japanese until
    the end of WWII.

9
Continued
  • Europe
  • In Italy, fascist leader Benito Mussolini came
    into power in 1922 and in 1935, Italy attacked
    Ethiopia. The Italian venture was successful and
    Ethiopia was claimed as a province of Italy.
  • In Germany, economic disaster struck. The Nazi
    Party used this to their advantage when
    successfully attempting to get into power.
    Hitler ran on a platform of anti-Semitism and
    resentment towards the TOV.
  • Great Britain turned inward and retreated behind
    the English Channel, and the French behind the
    Maginot Line.
  • In 1946 the League of Nations was formerly
    disbanded.
  • The powers of the interwar period Germany,
    Japan and Italy were careful and did not want to
    start another World War.

10
WWII Total War
  • In August 1939, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union
    signed the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact.
  • However Hitler soon invaded Poland on September
    1, 1939, and would late fully split ties with
    Soviet Union.
  • Britain and France honoured their pledge with
    Poland and declared war on Germany. From then on
    the war expanded rapidly.
  • German forces invaded and conquered Denmark,
    Norway, the Netherlands and Belgium.
  • In the Mediterranean, Mussolinis Italy invaded
    Greece and Germany was brought into the conflict.
  • June 1941, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union with a
    surprise attack and destroyed much of the Red
    Army.
  • Later that year, Japan attacked Pearl Harbour
    (seen as mistake)
  • Japan conquered the Philippines, French
    Indochina, Dutch East Indies, Singapore
  • Allied Powers (US, GB, SU) Axis Powers (GER, ITA,
    JAP)

11
Continued
  • Allies began air strikes against Germany damaging
    industry, transportation
  • Air strikes killed many civilians and damaged the
    war effort.
  • Further attacks were made at Berlin
  • Adolf Hitler committed suicide on April 30 1945,
    a month after Germany surrendered to the Allies.
  • This ended WWII, and some argue that the war
    would never had happened if it had not been for
    Hitler.
  • Throughout the war, the U.S. had been testing
    atomic weapons in New Mexico (successfully).
  • President Truman authorized the first military
    use of the atomic bomb which dropped on Hiroshimi
    in August 1945 and a second bomb was dropped on
    Nagasaki just three days later.
  • Many argue that these two atomic bombings were
    inhumane and unnecessary, especially since so
    many innocent people died.

12
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