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Library Automation Trends in Transition: Can new forces disrupt longstanding patterns? Marshall Breeding Director for Innovative Technologies and Research – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Library Automation Trends in Transition:


1
Library Automation Trends in Transition
  • Can new forces disrupt longstanding patterns?

Marshall BreedingDirector for Innovative
Technologies and Research Vanderbilt
University http//staffweb.library.vanderbilt.edu/
breeding http//www.librarytechnology.org/
Friday 17 October 2008 Oxford University
Libraries
2
Abstract
  • Marshall Breeding, Director for Innovative
    Technologies and Research and Vanderbilt
    University Library, gives a view of the current
    state library automation arena and looks forward
    as some of the trends evolve.  Especially in
    North America, but also in other regions, open
    source software has made a large impact on the
    market.  Will it displace the dominant position
    of the current commercial vendors?  As electronic
    content increases in proportion for libraries,
    new models of automation are beginning to emerge
    that break away from the mould cast decades ago.
     A new genre of discovery interfaces, based on a
    new set of assumptions have gained wide interest
    and are displacing many of the traditional
    library OPACS.  Breeding will discuss these
    topics and give a brief overview of the current
    vendor landscape, and will respond to questions
    and discussion from the audience.  

3
Part I. Broad Industry and Product Trends
4
Library Technology Guides
  • Repository for library automation data
  • Lib-web-cats tracks 35,000 libraries and the
    automation systems used.
  • Expanding to include more international scope
  • Announcements and developments made by companies
    and organizations involved in library automation
    technologies

5
Recent Upheavals
  • Industry Consolidation continues
  • Abrupt transitions for major library automation
    products
  • Increased industry control by external financial
    investors
  • Demise of the traditional OPAC, emergence of
    next-generation discovery interfaces
  • Frustration with ILS products and vendors
  • Open Source alternatives hit the mainstream

Breeding, Marshall Perceptions 2007 an
international survey of library automation.
http//www.librarytechnology.org/perceptions2007.
pl January 2008.
6
LJ Automation System Marketplace
  • Annual Industry report published in Library
    Journal
  • 2008 Opportunity out of turmoil
  • 2007 An industry redefined
  • 2006 Reshuffling the deck
  • 2005 Gradual evolution
  • 2004 Migration down, innovation up
  • 2003 The competition heats up
  • 2002 Capturing the migrating customer

7
ILS Industry in Transition
  • Consolidation through mergers and acquisitions
    have resulted in a fewer number of players
    larger companies
  • Uncomfortable level of product narrowing
  • Increased ownership by external interests
  • Yet Some companies and products continue on
    solid ground

Breeding, Marshall Automation system marketplace
2008 Opportunity Out of Turmoil Library
Journal. April 1, 2008.
8
Library Automation MA History
9
Internationalization
  • Many large companies extending their geographic
    reach
  • Ex Libris Based in Israel
  • Civica Based in the United Kingdom
  • SirsiDynix Based in the United States
  • Innovative Interfaces Based in the United States

10
Broad Industry Trends
  • Fewer number of larger companies
  • Consolidation of product offerings
  • Internationalization strong opportunities for
    systems with strong multilingual capabilities.
  • Local companies challenged by global companies
  • Strong interest in open source alternatives
  • Overall RD Focused on fewer new products

11
Product and Technology Trends
  • Innovation below expectations
  • Conventional ILS less tenable
  • Proliferation of products related to e-content
    management
  • New genre of discovery-layer interfaces

12
Part II. A Mandate for Openness
13
Opportunities for Openness
  • Open Source
  • Alternative to traditionally licensed software
  • Open Systems
  • Software that doesnt hold data hostage

14
Open Source ILS enters the mainstream
  • Earlier era of pioneering efforts to ILS shifting
    into one where open source alternatives fall in
    the mainstream
  • Off-the-shelf, commercially supported product
    available
  • Still a minority player, but gaining ground

15
Open Source ILS options
  • Koha
  • Commercial support from LibLime
  • Evergreen
  • Commercial support from Equinox Software
  • OPALS
  • Commercial support from Media Flex
  • NewGenLib
  • Open Source ILS for the developing world

16
Impact of Open Source ILS
  • Library automation industry cannot be complacent
  • Some libraries moving from traditionally licensed
    products to open source products with commercial
    support plans
  • Disruption of ILS industry
  • new pressures on incumbent vendors to deliver
    more innovation and to satisfy concerns for
    openness
  • New competition / More options

17
More Open Systems
  • Pressure for traditionally licensed products to
    become more open
  • APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) let
    libraries access and manipulate their data
    outside of delivered software
  • A comprehensive set of APIs potentially give
    libraries more flexibility and control in
    accessing data and services and in extending
    functionality than having access to the source
    code.
  • Customer access to APIs does not involve as much
    risk to breaking core system functions, avoids
    issues of version management and code forking
    associated with open source models.

18
A Continuum of Openness
19
Closed Systems
End User Interfaces
No programmable Access to the system. Captive
to the user Interfaces supplied by the developer
Programmer access
Acquisitions
Circulation
Cataloging
Functional modules
Data Stores
Staff Interfaces
20
Standard RDBM Systems
Database administrators can access data stores
involved with the system Read-only? Read/write?
Developer shares database schema
End User Interfaces
Programmer access
Acquisitions
Circulation
Cataloging
Functional modules
Data Stores
Staff Interfaces
21
Open Source Model
End User Interfaces
Programmer access
Acquisitions
Circulation
Cataloging
All aspects of the system available to inspection
and modification.
Functional modules
Data Stores
Staff Interfaces
22
Open API Model
End User Interfaces
Programmer access
Core application closed. Third party developers
code against the published APIs or RDBMS tables.
Acquisitions
Circulation
Cataloging
Functional modules
Published APIs
Data Stores
Staff Interfaces
23
Open Source / Open API Model
End User Interfaces
Programmer access
Core application closed. Third party developers
code against the published APIs or RDBMS tables.
Acquisitions
Circulation
Cataloging
Functional modules
Published APIs
Data Stores
Staff Interfaces
24
Depth of Openness
  • Evaluate level of access to a products data
    stores and functional elements
  • Open source vs Traditional licenses
  • Some traditional vendors have well established
    API implementations
  • SirsiDynix Unicorn (API available to authorized
    customer sites that take training program)
  • Ex Libris consistent deployment of APIs in major
    products, recent strategic initiative Open
    Platform Program
  • Innovative Interfaces Patron API

25
Universal open APIs?
  • Some progress on API to support discovery layer
    interfaces, but no comprehensive framework yet.
  • Many industry protocols work like APIs
  • Z39.50, SRU/W, NCIP, OAI-PMH, OpenURL, etd
  • It would be ideal if there were an open set of
    APIs that were implemented by all automation
    system products.
  • Third party components and add-ons would then
    work across all products.
  • DLF ILS-Discovery Interface protocol. Targets
    interoperability between ILS and new genre of
    interfaces
  • AKA Berkeley Accords

26
Next-Generation Library Interfaces
27
Troubling statistic
  • Where do you typically begin your search for
    information on a particular topic?
  • College Students Response
  • 89 Search engines (Google 62)
  • 2 Library Web Site (total respondents -gt 1)
  • 2 Online Database
  • 1 E-mail
  • 1 Online News
  • 1 Online bookstores
  • 0 Instant Messaging / Online Chat

OCLC. Perceptions of Libraries and Information
Resources (2005) p. 1-17.
28
Usage / - from 2005 to 2007
5
-10
30
14
The unfortunate exception is the use of library
Web sites usage has dropped from 2005 to 2007.
19
Source Sharing, Privacy and Trust in our
Networked World. OCLC 2007
29
Crowded Landscape of Information Providers on the
Web
  • Lots of non-library Web destinations deliver
    content to library patrons
  • Google Scholar
  • Amazon.com
  • Wikipedia
  • Ask.com
  • Do Library Web sites and catalogs meet the
    information needs of our users?
  • Do they attract their interest?

30
The Competition
31
The best Library OPAC?
32
Better?
33
Better?
34
Demand for compelling library interfaces
  • Urgent need for libraries to offer interfaces
    their users will like to use
  • Move into the current millennium
  • Powerful search capabilities in tune with how the
    Web works today
  • Meet user expectations set by other Web
    destination

35
Inadequacy of ILS OPACs
  • Online Catalog modules provided with an ILS
    subject to broad criticism as failing to meet
    expectations of growing segments of library
    patrons.
  • Not great at delivering electronic content
  • Complex text-based interfaces
  • Relatively weak keyword search engines
  • Lack of good relevancy sorting
  • Narrow scope of content

36
Disjointed approach to information and service
delivery
  • Books Library OPAC (ILS module)
  • Articles Aggregated content products, e-journal
    collections
  • OpenURL linking services
  • E-journal finding aids (Often managed by link
    resolver)
  • Local digital collections
  • ETDs, photos, rich media collections
  • Metasearch engines
  • All searched separately

37
Change underway
  • Widespread dissatisfaction with most of the
    current OPACs. Many efforts toward
    next-generation catalogs and interfaces.
  • Movement among libraries to break out of the
    current mold of library catalogs and offer new
    interfaces better suited to the expectations of
    library users.
  • Decoupling of the front-end interface from the
    back-end library automation system.
  • Eventual redesign of the ILS to be better suited
    for current library collections of digital and
    print content

38
Redefining the catalog
  • More comprehensive information discovery
    environments
  • Its no longer enough to provide a catalog
    limited to print resources
  • Digital resources cannot be an afterthought
  • Systems designed for e-content only are also
    problematic
  • Forcing users to use different interfaces
    depending on type of content becoming less
    tenable
  • Libraries working toward consolidated user
    environments that give equal footing to digital
    and print resources

39
Comprehensive Search Service
  • Current distributed query model of federated
    search model not adequate
  • Expanded scope of search through harvested
    content
  • Consolidated search services based on metadata
    and data gathered in advance (like OAI-PMH)
  • Problems of scale diminished
  • Problems of cooperation persist
  • Federated search currently operates as a plug-in
    component of next-gen interfaces.

40
Web 2.0 Flavorings
  • Strategic infrastructure Web 2.0
  • A more social and collaborative approach
  • Web Tools and technology that foster
    collaboration
  • Integrated blogs, wiki, tagging, social
    bookmarking, user rating, user reviews
  • Avoid Web 2.0 information silos

41
The Ideal Scope for Next Gen Library Interfaces
  • Unified user experience
  • A single point of entry into all the content and
    services offered by the library
  • Print Electronic
  • Local Remote
  • Locally created Content
  • User contributed content?

42
Interface Features / User Experience
  • Simple point of entry
  • Optional advanced search
  • Relevancy ranked results
  • Facets for narrowing and navigation
  • Query enhancement spell check, etc
  • Suggested related results
  • Navigational bread crumbs
  • Enriched visual and textual content
  • Single Sign-on

43
Deep search
  • Entering post-metadata search era
  • Increasing opportunities to search the full
    contents
  • Google Library Print, Google Publisher, Open
    Content Alliance, Microsoft Live Book Search,
    etc.
  • High-quality metadata will improve search
    precision
  • Commercial search providers already offer search
    inside the book
  • No comprehensive full text search for books quite
    yet
  • Not currently available through library search
    environments
  • Deep search highly improved by high-quality
    metadata
  • See Systems Librarian, May 2008 Beyond the
    current generation of next-generation interfaces
    deeper search

44
Beyond Discovery
  • Fulfillment oriented
  • Search -gt select -gt view
  • Delivery/Fulfillment much harder than discovery
  • Back-end complexity should be as seamless as
    possible to the user
  • Offer services for digital and print content

45
Library-specific Features
  • Appropriate relevance factors
  • Objective keyword ranking Library weightings
  • Circulation frequency, OCLC holdings, scholarly
    content
  • Results grouping (FRBR)
  • Collection focused (vs sales-driven)

46
Enterprise Integration
  • Ability to deliver content and services through
    non-library applications
  • Campus portal solutions
  • Courseware
  • Social networking environments
  • Search portals / Feed aggregators

47
Architecture and Standards
  • Need to have an standard approach for connecting
    new generation interfaces with ILS and other
    repositories
  • Proprietary and ad hoc methods currently prevail
  • Digital Library Federation
  • ILS-Discovery Interface Group
  • Time to start thinking about a new generation of
    ILS better suited for current library collections
    and missions.

48
New-Gen Library Interfaces
  • Current Commercial and Open Source Products

49
Part III. Moving toward new generation of library
automation
50
Rethinking the ILS
  • Fundamental assumption Print Digital Hybrid
    libraries
  • Traditional ILS model not adequate for hybrid
    libraries
  • Libraries currently moving toward surrounding
    core ILS with additional modules to handle
    electronic content
  • New discovery layer interfaces replacing or
    supplementing ILS OPACS
  • Working toward a new model of library automation
  • Monolithic legacy architectures replaced by
    fabric of SOA applications
  • Comprehensive Resource Management

It's Time to Break the Mold of the Original ILS
Computers in Libraries Nov/Dec 2007
51
ILS a legacy concept?
  • ILS Integrated Library System
  • (Cataloging Circulation OPAC Serials
    Acquisitions)
  • Focused on print and physical inventory
  • Electronic content at the Journal Title or
    collection level
  • Emerged in the 1960s 1970s
  • Functionality has evolved and expanded, but basic
    concepts and modules remain intact
  • Note Some companies work toward evolving the ILS
    to competently handle both print and digital
    content (e.g. Innovative Interfaces)

52
ILS ever diminishing role
  • Many libraries putting much less emphasis on ILS
  • Just an inventory system for physical materials
  • Investments in electronic content increasing
  • Management of e-content handled outside of the
    ILS
  • Yet libraries need comprehensive business
    automation more than ever. Mandate for more
    efficient operations. Do more with less.

53
Dis-integration of Library Automation
Functionality
  • ILS -- Print and Physical inventory
  • OpenURL Link resolver
  • Federated Search
  • Electronic Resource Management Module
  • Discovery layer interface

54
Is non-integrated automation sustainable?
  • Major burden on library personnel
  • Serial procurement / installation / configuration
    / maintenance cycles take many years to result in
    a comprehensive environment
  • Inefficient data models
  • Disjointed interfaces for library users
  • Very long cycle to gain comprehensive automation

55
Breaking down the modules
  • Traditional ILS
  • Cataloging
  • Circulation
  • Online Catalog
  • Acquisitions
  • Serials control
  • Reporting
  • Modern approach SOA

56
Service Oriented Architecture
http//www.sun.com/products/soa/benefits.jsp
57
Legacy ILS e-content modules
End User Interfaces
Federated Search
OpenURL Linking
Electronic Resource Mgmt System
Circulation
Acquisitions
Functional modules
Cataloging
Serials
Data Stores
Staff Interfaces
58
SOA model for business automation
  • Underlying data repositories
  • Local or Global
  • Reusable business services
  • Composite business applications

59
SOA for library workflow processes
Composite Applications
Reusable Business Services
Granular tasks
Data Stores
60
Comprehensive Resource Management
  • Broad conceptual approach that proposes a library
    automation environment that spans all types of
    content that comprise library collections.
  • Traditional ILS vendors Under development but no
    public announcements
  • Open Source projects in early phases
  • Projection 2-3 years until we begin see library
    automation systems that follow this approach. 5-7
    years for wider adoption.

61
Open Library Environment (OLE) project
  • Funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
  • Research in Information Technology program
  • Duke University selected to lead project
  • Core Participants Kansas University, Lehigh
    University, National Library of Australia,
    Library and Archives Canada, University of
    Pennsylvania, Marshall Breeding
  • Advisory Participants University of Chicago,
    Wittier College, University of Maryland, ORBIS
    Cascade Alliance, Rutgers University
  • Working toward a next-generation library
    automation environment based on SOA and business
    process modeling.

http//oleproject.org
62
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