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Memory Management

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Memory Management COSC 513 Presentation Jun Tian 08/17/2000 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Memory Management


1
Memory Management
  • COSC 513 Presentation
  • Jun Tian
  • 08/17/2000

2
Memory Management
  • Memory management is the art and the process of
    coordinating and controlling the use of memory in
    a computer system
  • Why memory management?
  • Multiple processing
  • Relocation
  • Protection
  • Sharing
  • Logical Organization
  • Physical Organization

3
Three areas of memory management
  • Memory management hardware
  • MMUs (Memory Management Unit), RAM, etc.
  • Operating system memory management
  • Virtual memory, protection, etc.
  • Application memory management
  • Allocation, garbage collection, etc.

4
Memory Management Hardware
  • Memory management devices include RAM, MMUs,
    caches, disks, and processor registers
  • Ex. MMU
  • a hardware device responsible for handling memory
    accesses requested by the main processor
  • translates virtual addresses to physical addresses

5
Operating System Memory Management
  • Virtual Memory
  • Operating systems simulates having more memory
    than is available as main memory, by storing part
    of the data in backing store, typically on disk.
  • If the page referenced by the virtual address is
    not currently in main memory, a page fault
    occurs, triggering an operating system handler
    that swaps in the page.
  • Some other page might be swapped out to make room
  • Benefits

6
Operating System Memory Management
  • Protection (also known as memory protection, page
    protection)
  • Operating systems can protect memory pages
    against a combination of read, write or execute
    accesses by a process.
  • A process which attempts a protected access will
    trigger a protection fault.

7
Application Memory Management Allocation
  • When the program requests a block of memory, the
    memory manager must allocate that blockout of the
    larger blocks it has received from the operating
    system.
  • The part of the memory manager that does this is
    known as the allocator.
  • Allocation techniques
  • First fit
  • Buddy system
  • Suballocators

8
Application Memory Management Recycling
  • When memory blocks have been allocated, but the
    data they contain is no longer required by the
    program, then the blocks can be recycled for
    reuse.
  • There are two approaches to recycling memory
  • either the programmer must decide when memory can
    be reused (known as manual memory management)
  • or the memory manager must be able to work it out
    (known as automatic memory management).

9
Application memory manager constraints
  • CPU overhead
  • The additional time taken by the memory manager
    while the program is running
  • Interactive pause times
  • How much delay an interactive user observes
  • Memory overhead
  • How much space is wasted for administration,
    rounding (known as internal fragmentation), and
    poor layout (known as external fragmentation).

10
Memory management problems
  • Premature free or dangling pointer
  • Memory leak
  • External fragmentation
  • Poor locality of reference
  • Inflexible design
  • Interface complexity
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