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Title: Show leadership in the workplace - 2010


1
Show leadership in the workplace - 2010
  • Introduction
  • Overview
  • Key concepts
  • Assessments
  • Q/A

2
ORGANISATION
  • Definitions
  • 1 A deliberate arrangement of people to
    accomplish some specific purpose.
  • Robbins et al 2 p5
  • 2 Two or more persons engaged in a systematic
    effort to produce goods and services
  • Bartol et al p13

3
CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANISATIONS
  • Robbins et al 2 p5

Distinct purpose
Deliberate structure
People
4
ORGANISATIONAL LEVELS
Top managers
Middle managers
First-line managers Non-managerial employees
5
Question small group activity
  • How have organisations changed over the past 20
    years
  • Structure
  • People
  • Purpose

6
THE CHANGING ORGANISATION 1/2
  • TRADITIONAL
  • Stable
  • Inflexible
  • Job-focused
  • Individual-oriented
  • Permanent jobs
  • Command-oriented
  • Managers always make decisions
  • NEW
  • Dynamic
  • Flexible
  • Skills-focussed
  • Work defined in terms of tasks
  • Team-oriented
  • Temporary jobs
  • Involvement-oriented

7
THE CHANGING ORGANISATION 2/2
  • (TRADITIONAL)
  • Rule-oriented
  • Relatively homogeneous workforce
  • Work days defined as 9 to 5
  • Hierarchical relationships
  • Work at organisational facility during specific
    hours
  • (NEW)
  • Employees participate in decision-making
  • Customer-oriented
  • Diverse workforce
  • Workdays have no time boundaries
  • Lateral and networked relationships
  • Work anywhere, anytime
  • Robbins et al 2 p6

8
MANAGEMENT
  • Definition
  • The process of achieving organisational goals
    through engaging in the four major functions of
    planning, organising, leading and controlling.
  • Bartol et al p13

9
MANAGER
  • Definition
  • An organisational member who integrates and
    co-ordinates the work of others.
  • Robbins et al 2 p7

10
MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS 1/2
  • Planning
  • - Defining goals, establishing strategy, and
    developing plans to co-ordinate activities
  • Organising
  • - Determining what tasks are to be done, who is
    to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who
    reports to whom and where decisions are made.

11
MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS 2/2
  • Leading
  • - Includes motivating subordinates, directing
    others, selecting the most effective
    communication channels, and resolving conflicts
  • Controlling
  • - Monitoring activities to ensure that they are
    being accomplished as planned and correcting any
    significant deviations Robbins et al 2 pp10-11

12
MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS AT DIFFERENT HIERARCHICAL
LEVELS
  • Bartol et al p28

planning
organising
leading
controlling
Middle
First line
Top
13
Leadership vs management
  • Team leadership requires a different role to that
    of the line manager
  • Team leaders are more like coaches than bosses,
    they bring out the best in team members and
    assist the team to work effectively
  • A leadership theory that suits team leadership is
    situational leadership theory.

14
Leadership
  • Situational leadership theory, developed by
    Hersey and Blanchard, is based on the premise
    that leaders need to alter their behaviours
    depending on the readiness of followers.
  • The theory looks at task behaviours where the
    leader tells people what to do, how to do it and
    when to do it. Relationship behaviour involves
    the leader listening, facilitating and supporting
    behaviours.
  • The leader develops an idea of team members
    readiness levels which include willingness
    (confidence, commitment and motivation), and
    ability (job readiness).

15
Leadership
  • 4 types of leadership behaviour.
  • Telling when the team member is unable or
    unwilling or too insecure to take responsibility
    for a task. For example a new team member. It
    involves giving specific directions.
  • Selling when team members are unable to take
    responsibility but are willing or feel confident.
    For example a keen but not fully trained team
    member. The selling style aims to give direction
    while being supportive of the team members
    enthusiasm.
  • Participating Where team members are able to
    take responsibility but are unwilling or too
    insecure to do so. Emphasis on two way
    communication and collaboration is effective.
  • Delegating When team members are able and
    willing to take responsibility. They need little
    support or direction and so can be delegated
    responsibilities.

16
MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  • Definition
  • The set of ongoing decisions and actions in
    which managers engage as they plan, organise,
    lead and control.
  • Robbins et al 2 p 11

17
MANAGEMENT SKILLS (1)
  • Technical Skills
  • Skills that include knowledge of and proficiency
    in a certain specialised field
  • Human/Interpersonal Skills
  • The ability to work well with other people both
    individually and in a group

18
MANAGEMENT SKILLS (2)
  • Conceptual Skills
  • The ability to think and conceptualise about
    abstract situations, to see the organisation as a
    whole and the relationships among its various
    sub-units, and to visualise how the organisation
    fits into its environment.
  • Robbins et al 2 pp15-6

19
MANAGEMENT SKILLS AT DIFFERENT HIERARCHICAL LEVELS
Technical
Human
Conceptual
First-line
Middle
Top
Bartol et al p29
20
MANAGEMENT AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY (1)
  • Functional Managers
  • Responsible for a specific, specialised area of
    the organisation and who supervise individuals
    with expertise in that area
  • General Managers
  • Responsible for a total organisation or a
    substantial sub-unit that includes most of the
    common specialised areas within it

21
MANAGEMENT AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY (2)
  • Project Managers
  • Responsible for co-ordinating efforts of
    individuals in several different organisational
    units all working on one project.
  • Bartol et al p33

22
PHASES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGEMENT THEORY
  • Pre-classical
  • Classical
  • Behavioural
  • Quantitative
  • Contemporary
  • Bartol et al p44

23
PRE-CLASSICAL
  • A number of progressive individuals of the
    middle to late 1800s began to lay the foundations
    for the broader enquiries into the nature of
    management.
  • Contributors from this period included Robert
    Owen, Charles Babbage and Henry Towne.

24
CLASSICAL VIEWPOINT
  • A perspective on management emphasising finding
    ways to manage work and organisations more
    effectively.
  • It encompasses the perspectives of
  • Scientific Management
  • Administrative Management
  • Bureaucratic Management
  • Bartol et al p45

25
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
  • An approach emphasising the scientific study of
    work methods to improve worker efficiency
  • Representatives of this approach were Frederick
    Taylor, Frank Lillian Gilbreth and Henry Gantt.
  • Bartol et al pp47-50

26
ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT
  • An approach focussing on principles that can be
    used by managers to co-ordinate the internal
    activities of organisations
  • Representatives of this approach were Henri
    Fayol and Chester Barnard
  • Bartol et al p52

27
BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT
  • An approach emphasising the need for
    organisations to operate in a rational manner
    rather than relying on the arbitrary whims of
    owners and managers
  • The noted contributor from this area is Max
    Weber.

28
BEHAVIOURAL VIEWPOINT
  • A perspective on management emphasising the
    importance of attempting to understand the
    various factors affecting human behaviour in
    organisations
  • Behavioural Management encompasses the areas of
  • Early Behaviourists
  • Hawthorne Studies
  • Human relations Movement
  • Behavioural Science Approach Bartol et al
    p54-61

29
EARLY BEHAVIOURISTS
  • As interest grew in management, individuals from
    specialisations other than engineering provided
    alternatives to the engineering perspective of
    scientific management
  • Proponents within this phase are Hugo
    Munsterberg and Mary Follett Bartol et al p55

30
HAWTHORNE STUDIES
  • A group of studies conducted at the Hawthorne
    plant of Western Electric Co during the late
    1920s and early 30s which ultimately lead to the
    human relations view of management
  • The major researchers in the study were Elton
    Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger
  • Bartol et al pp56-9

31
HUMAN RELATIONS MOVEMENT
  • The emphasis was on building more collaborative
    and co-operative relationships. Managers needed
    social skills and a better understanding of how
    to give workers more job satisfaction.
  • The proponents of this area were Abraham Maslow
    and Douglas McGregor
  • Bartol et al pp59-61

32
BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCE APPROACH
  • An approach emphasising scientific research as
    the basis for developing theories about human
    behaviour in organisations that can be used to
    develop practical guidelines for managers.
  • One outcome from this area was that individuals
    perform better with challenging goals. Proponents
    - Locke, Herzberg
  • Bartol et al pp61-2

33
QUANTITATIVE MANAGEMENT
  • Focused on using mathematics, statistics and
    information aids to support managerial decision
    making and organisational performance.
  • The three main branches evolved
  • Management science
  • Operations management
  • Management information systems
  • Bartol et al p62

34
MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
  • An approach aimed at increasing decision
    effectiveness through the use of sophisticated
    mathematical models and statistical methods
  • (Megginson, Mosley Pietri)
  • Bartol et al p62

35
OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
  • The function or field of expertise primarily
    responsible for managing production and
    organisations products and services
  • (Sawaya Giauque)
  • Bartol et al p62

36
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS
  • The field of management which focuses on
    designing and implementing computer-based
    information systems for use by management.
  • Bartol et al p63

37
CONTEMPORARY VIEWPOINTS
  • (These are recent innovations into management
    thinking)
  • Systems Approach
  • Contingency Approach
  • Emerging Theories
  • Bartol et al p63

38
SYSTEMS APPROACH
  • An approach based on the idea that organisations
    can be visualised as systems (A set of
    interrelated parts operating as a whole in
    pursuit of common goals)
  • Four major components make up the organisational
    system - inputs, transformational processes,
    outputs and, feedback.
  • Bartol et al p63

39
CONTINGENCY THEORY
  • A viewpoint arguing that appropriate managerial
    action depends on the particular parameters of
    the situation
  • Bartol et al p66

40
OTHER THEORIES
  • Japanese Management
  • Focussing on aspects of Japanese management that
    may be adopted elsewhere in the world
  • Theory Z
  • Combining Western and Japanese management in bit
    still maintaining norms values of Western
    culture
  • Total Quality Management
  • Highlights collective responsibility for product
    and service encouraging individuals to work
    together Bartol et al p68

41
ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE
  • Def.
  • A system of shared values, assumptions, beliefs
    and norms held by members of an organisation
  • Bartol et al 95 p101

42
DIMENSIONS OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE
  • Innovation and risk-taking
  • Attention to detail
  • Outcome orientation
  • People orientation
  • Team orientation
  • Aggressiveness
  • Stability

43
ASPECTS OF CULTURE DETERMINING IMPACT ON AN
ORGANISATION
  • Direction - degree to which culture supports
    reaching organisational goals
  • Pervasiveness - degree to which a culture is
    widespread among members
  • Strength - degree to which members accept the
    values etc of the culture
  • Bartol et al 95 p101

44
HOW EMPLOYEES LEARN CULTURE
  • Stories
  • Rituals
  • Material symbols
  • Language
  • Robbins et al 2 00 pp97-8

45
CHANGING ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE (1/2)
  • 1. Surface actual norms - members list actual
    norms they believe influence their attitudes and
    actions
  • 2. Articulate new directions - members discuss
    current organisational direction and behaviours
    necessary for organisational success
  • 3. Establish new norms - group members develop a
    list a of norms that would have a positive impact
    on organisational effectiveness

46
CHANGING ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE (2/2)
  • 4. Identify culture gaps - identify areas of
    major difference between actual norms and those
    which would have a positive impact
  • 5. Close culture gaps - agree on new norms and
    develop ways to reinforce them (reward system)
  • Bartol et al 95 p105

47
ORGANISATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
  • Def.
  • Environment
  • Outside institutions or force that potentially
    affect an organisations performance
  • Mega-environment
  • The broad conditions and trends in the societies
    within which an organisation operates (Robbins et
    al refers to as General Environment)
  • Bartol et al 95 p82

48
ORGANISATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
  • Def.
  • Internal
  • The general conditions existing within an
    organisation
  • External
  • The major forces outside the organisation with
    the potential to significantly impact on on the
    operations of an organisation
  • Bartol et al 95 p82

49
ORGANISATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
  • Def.
  • Environmental Uncertainty
  • The degree of change and complexity in an
    organisations environment
  • Environmental Complexity
  • The number of components in an organisations
    environment and the extent of an organisations
    knowledge about its environmental components
    Robbins at al 00 p103

50
PLANNING
  • Def.
  • A process that involves defining an
    organisations objectives or goals, establishing
    an overall strategy for achieving those goals,
    and developing a comprehensive hierarchy of plans
    to integrate and co-ordinate activities.
  • Robbins et al 00 p247

51
PURPOSE OF PLANNING
  • Provides direction
  • Reduces the impact of change
  • Minimises waste and redundancy
  • Sets standards used in controlling
  • Robbins et al 00 p247

52
MAJOR COMPONENTS OF PLANNING (1/3)
  • Mission
  • Goals/Objectives
  • Plans
  • Bartol et al 95 p154

53
MAJOR COMPONENTS OF PLANNING (2/3)
  • Mission
  • The organisations purpose or fundamental reason
    for existence
  • Mission Statement
  • A broad declaration of the basic, unique purpose
    and scope of operations distinguishing the
    organisation from others of its type
  • Bartol et al 95 p154

54
MAJOR COMPONENTS OF PLANNING (3/3)
  • Goals/Objectives
  • Future targets or end results that an
    organisation wishes to achieve
  • Plans
  • The means devised for attempting to reach a goal
  • Bartol et al 95 p154

55
TYPES OF PLANS (1/5)
  • Strategic Plans
  • Plans that are organisation-wide, establish
    overall objectives, and position an organisation
    in terms of its environment
  • Operational Plans
  • Plans that specify details on how overall
    objectives are to be achieved

56
TYPES OF PLANS (2/5)
  • Contingency Plans
  • The development of alternative plans for use
    when environmental conditions evolve differently
    to that anticipated, rendering original plans
    unwise or unfeasible.
  • (Bartol et al 95 p176)

57
TYPES OF PLANS (3/5)
  • Long Term Plans
  • Plans that extend beyond 5 years
  • Short Term Plans
  • Plans that cover less than 1 year

58
TYPES OF PLANS (4/5)
  • Specific Plans
  • Plans that are clearly defined and leave no room
    for interpretation
  • Directional Plans
  • Flexible plans that set out general guidelines

59
TYPES OF PLANS (5/5)
  • Single-Use Plan
  • A one-time plan that is specifically designed to
    meet the needs of a unique situation and is
    created in response to non-programmed decisions
    made by managers
  • Standing Plans
  • Ongoing plans that provide guidance for
    activities repeatedly performed in the
    organisation they are created in response to
    programmed decisions made by managers Robbins
    et al 00 pp250-2

60
ESTABLISHING OBJECTIVES (1/3)
  • Traditional
  • Objectives are set at the top and then broken
    down into sub-goals for each level in an
    organisation. The top imposes its standards on
    everyone below
  • Robbins et al 00 p260

61
ESTABLISHING OBJECTIVES (2/3)
  • Means-ends-chain
  • An integrated network of organisational
    objectives, or ends, are linked to lower-level
    objectives, which serve as the means for their
    accomplishment
  • Robbins et al 00 p260

62
ESTABLISHING OBJECTIVES (3/3)
  • Management by Objectives (MBO)
  • A system in which specific performance
    objectives are jointly determined by subordinates
    and their supervisors, progress towards
    objectives is periodically reviewed, and rewards
    are allocated on the basis of this progress
  • Robbins et al 00 p261

63
COMMON ELEMENTS OF MBO
  • Goal specificity
  • Participation in decision-making
  • Explicit time period
  • Performance feedback
  • Robbins et al 00 p262

64
TYPICAL STEPS IN A MBO PROGRAMME (1/2)
  • 1. Organisations overall objectives and
    strategies are formulated
  • 2. Major objectives are allocated among
    divisional and departmental units
  • 3. Unit managers collaboratively set specific
    objectives for their units with their supervisors
  • 4. Specific objectives are collaboratively set
    for all department members

65
TYPICAL STEPS IN A MBO PROGRAMME (2/2)
  • 5. Action plans, defining how objectives are to
    be achieved, are specified and agreed upon by
    managers and subordinates
  • 6. Action plans are implemented
  • 7. Progress towards objectives is periodically
    reviewed, and feedback provided
  • 8. Successful achievement of objectives is
    reinforced by performance-based rewards
  • Robbins et al 00 p263

66
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  • Def.
  • An eight step process that encompasses strategic
    planning, implementation and evaluation

67
LEVELS OF STRATEGY
  • Corporate
  • Seeks to determine what business a corporation
    should be in
  • Business
  • Seeks to determine how a corporation should
    compete in each business
  • Functional
  • Seeks to determine how to support the
    business-level strategy
  • Robbins et al 00 p275-6

68
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS STEPS
  • 1. Identify the organisations current mission,
    objectives and strategies
  • 2. Analyse the external environment
  • 3. Identify the opportunities and threats
  • 4. Analyse the organisations resources
  • 5. Identify the strengths and weaknesses
  • 6. Formulate strategies
  • 7. Implement strategies
  • 8. Evaluate results Robbins et al 00
    pp277-84

69
SWOT ANALYSIS (1/3)
  • Def.
  • A method of analysing an organisations
    competitive situation that involves assessing
    organisational
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Opportunities, and
  • Threats
  • Bartol et al 95 p196

70
SWOT ANALYSIS (2/3)
  • External
  • An opportunity is an environmental condition
    which can significantly improve an organisations
    situation relative to that of competitors
  • A threat is an environmental condition which can
    significantly undermine an organisations
    competitive position

71
SWOT ANALYSIS (3/3)
  • Internal
  • A strength is an internal aspect which can
    improve the organisations competitive situation
  • A weakness is an internal aspect where the
    organisation is potentially vulnerable to
    competitors strategic moves
  • Bartol et al 95 p196

72
DECISION-MAKING / PROBLEM-SOLVING (1/2)
  • Definitions
  • Problem
  • The difference between an actual situation and a
    desired situation
  • Decision
  • A choice made from two or more alternatives

73
DECISION-MAKING / PROBLEM-SOLVING (2/2)
  • Decision-making process
  • The process through which problems are
    identified and attempts made to resolve them

74
TYPES OF PROBLEMS FACED BY DECISION-MAKERS (1/2)
  • Crisis Problem
  • A serious difficulty requiring immediate action
  • Non-crisis Problem
  • An issue that requires resolution but does not
    simultaneously have the importance and immediacy
    characteristics of a crisis
  • Opportunity Problem
  • A situation offering strong potential for
    significant organisational gain if appropriate
    actions are taken
  • Bartol et al 95 p257

75
TYPES OF PROBLEMS FACED BY DECISION-MAKERS (2/2)
  • Well-structured Problem
  • Straightforward, familiar, easily defined
    problems
  • Ill-structured Problem
  • New problems in which information is ambiguous
    or incomplete
  • Robbins et al 00 pp214/6

76
DECISION-MAKING SITUATIONS
  • Programmed (routine) decisions
  • Decisions made in routine, repetitive,
    well-structured situations through the use of
    pre-determined decision rules
  • Non-programmed decisions
  • Situations for which pre-determined decision
    rules are impractical because the situations are
    novel and/or ill-structured
  • Bartol et al 95 p259/60

77
PROGRAMMED DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
  • Previous solutions
  • Procedures
  • Rules
  • Policies
  • Robbins et al 00 p215

78
DECISION-MAKING STYLES
  • Problem Avoider - inactive
  • Problem Solver - reactive
  • Problem Seeker - proactive

79
PERSPECTIVES ON HOW DECISIONS ARE MADE (1/4)
  • Rational Model
  • Suggests that managers engage in completely
    rational decision processes, ultimately make
    optimal decisions and possess and understand all
    information relevant to their decisions at the
    time they make them
  • Bartol et al 95 pp262-4

80
PERSPECTIVES ON HOW DECISIONS ARE MADE (2/4)
  • Non-rational models
  • Suggests that information-gathering and
    processing limitations make it difficult for
    managers to make optimal decisions
  • Bounded rationality
  • Suggests that the ability of managers to be
    perfectly rational in making decisions is limited
    by such factors as cognitive capacity and time
    constraints Bartol et al 95 pp262-4

81
PERSPECTIVES ON HOW DECISIONS ARE MADE (3/4)
  • Satisficing model
  • States that managers seek alternatives only until
    they find one that looks satisfactory, rather
    than seeking the optimal decision
  • Incremental model
  • Managers make the smallest response possible that
    will reduce the problem to at least a tolerable
    level
  • Bartol et al 95 pp262-4

82
PERSPECTIVES ON HOW DECISIONS ARE MADE (4/4)
  • Rubbish-bin model
  • States that managers behave in virtually random
    pattern in making non-programmed decisions
  • Bartol et al 95 pp262-4

83
DECISION-MAKING PROCESS (1/2)
  • 1. Identify problem
  • Discrepancy between an existing and a desired
    state of affairs
  • 2. Identify decision criteria
  • What is relevant to the decision-making process
  • 3. Allocating weights to criteria
  • What are the important criteria

84
DECISION-MAKING PROCESS (2/2)
  • 4. Developing alternatives
  • How could the problem be resolved
  • 5. Analysing alternatives
  • Measure strength and weaknesses of each by
    weighting
  • 6. Select alternative
  • 7. Implement alternative
  • 8. Evaluate decision effectiveness
  • Robbins et al 00 pp201-8

85
DECISION-MAKING CONDITIONS
  • (Part of analysing alternatives)
  • Certainty - can make accurate decisions because
    the outcome of every alternative is known
  • Risk - conditions in which the decision-maker is
    able to estimate the likelihood of certain
    outcomes
  • Uncertainty - decision-maker has neither
    certainty nor reasonable probability estimates
    available
  • Robbins et al 00 pp218-9

86
OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE DECISION-MAKING
(1/2)
  • Accepting the problem challenge
  • Four basic reaction patterns to a legitimate
    problem
  • Complacency - do not see the signs of danger or
    opportunity, or ignore them
  • Defensive avoidance - deny the importance of a
    danger or an opportunity or deny responsibility
    for taking action
  • Bartol et al 95 p270-2

87
OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE DECISION-MAKING
(1/2)
  • Panic - a reaction where individuals become so
    upset that they frantically seek a way to solve a
    problem
  • Decide to decide
  • Search for sufficient alternatives
  • Recognise common decision-making biases
  • Bartol et al 95 p270-2

88
COMMON DECISION-MAKING BARRIERS (1/3)
  • Framing
  • The tendency to make different decisions
    depending on how a problem is presented
  • Prospect theory
  • Decision-makers find the prospect of an actual
    loss more painful than giving up the possibility
    of a gain
  • Bartol et al 95 pp272-3

89
COMMON DECISION-MAKING BARRIERS (2/3)
  • Representativeness
  • The tendency to be overly influenced by
    stereotypes in making judgements about the
    likelihood of occurrences
  • Availability
  • The tendency to judge the likelihood of an
    occurrence on the basis of the extent to which
    similar instances or occurrences can be recalled
  • Bartol et al 95 pp272-3

90
COMMON DECISION-MAKING BARRIERS (3/3)
  • Anchoring and adjustment
  • The tendency to be influenced by an initial
    figure, even when the information is largely
    irrelevant
  • Overconfidence
  • The tendency to be more certain of judgements
    regarding the likelihood of a future event than
    ones actual predictive accuracy warrants
  • Bartol et al 95 pp272-3

91
GROUP DECISION-MAKING
  • Advantages
  • Provides more complete information
  • Generates more alternatives
  • Increases acceptance of solution
  • Increases legitimacy
  • Develops members knowledge skills
  • Disadvantages
  • Pressures to conform /groupthink
  • Disagreements delay decisions/hard feelings
  • Ambiguous responsibility
  • Minority domination
  • Time consuming
  • Robbins Bartol

92
ENHANCING GROUP DECISION-MAKING (1/4)
  • Devils advocates
  • Individuals who are assigned the role of
    ensuring that negative aspects of attractive
    decision alternatives are considered
  • Dialectical inquiry
  • A procedure in which a decision situation is
    approached from two opposite points of view
  • Bartol et al 95 p278

93
ENHANCING GROUP DECISION-MAKING (2/4)
  • Brainstorming
  • A technique encouraging group members to
    generate as many novel ideas as possible on a
    given topic without evaluating them at the time
  • Nominal group technique (NGT)
  • A technique integrating both individual work and
    group interaction within certain ground rules
  • Bartol et al 95 pp283-4

94
ENHANCING GROUP DECISION-MAKING (3/4)
  • Delphi technique
  • A group decision-making technique in which
    members never meet face-to-face and they are
    unaware of who the other participants are
  • Electronic meeting
  • A decision-making group that interacts by way
    of linked computers
  • Robbins et al 00 p226

95
ENHANCING GROUP DECISION-MAKING (4/4)
  • Synetics
  • A technique relying on analogies to help group
    members look at problems from new perspectives
  • Bartol et al 95 p284

96
ORGANISING (1/12)
  • Def.
  • The process of creating an organisations
    structure
  • Robbins et al 00 p351

97
ORGANISING (2/12)
  • Organisational Structure
  • The organisations formal framework by which job
    tasks are divided, grouped and co-ordinated
  • Organisational Design
  • Developing or changing an organisations
    structure
  • Robbins et al 00 p351

98
ORGANISING (3/12)
  • Organisation Chart
  • A line diagram depicting the broad outlines of
    an organisations structure
  • Formalisation
  • The degree to which written policies, rules,
    procedures, job descriptions etc specify what
    actions are (or are not) to be taken under given
    circumstances
  • Bartol et al 95 p296/305

99
ORGANISING (4/12)
  • Work Specialisation (Division of Labour)
  • The degree to which tasks in an organisation are
    divided into separate jobs
  • Robbins et al 00 p352
  • Job Design
  • The specification of task activities associated
    with a particular job
  • Bartol et al 95 p298

100
ORGANISING (5/12)
  • Authority
  • The rights inherent in a managerial position to
    give orders and to expect orders to be obeyed
  • Responsibility
  • The obligation or expectation to perform
  • Robbins et al p357

101
ORGANISING (6/12)
  • Delegation
  • The assignment of part of a managers work to
    others along with both the necessary
    responsibility and authority to achieve expected
    results
  • Accountability
  • The requirement to provide satisfactory reasons
    for significant deviations from duties or
    expected results Bartol et al 95 p314

102
ORGANISING (7/12)
  • Chain of Command
  • The unbroken line of authority ultimately
    linking each individual with the top
    organisational position through a managerial
    position at each successive layer in between
  • Bartol et al 95 p298

103
ORGANISING (8/12)
  • Unity of Command
  • The management principle that subordinates
    should have only one supervisor to whom they are
    directly responsible
  • Span of Control
  • The number of subordinates that a manager can
    supervise efficiently and effectively
  • Robbins et al 00 p357-8

104
ORGANISING (9/12)
  • Centralisation
  • The degree to which decision-making is
    concentrated in the upper levels of the
    organisation
  • Decentralisation
  • The handing down of decision-making to lower
    levels in an organisation
  • Robbins et al 00 p359

105
ORGANISING (10/12)
  • Tall Structure
  • A structure with many hierarchical levels and
    narrow spans of control
  • Flat Structure
  • A structure with few hierarchical levels and
    wide spans of control
  • Bartol et al 95 p308

106
ORGANISING (11/12)
  • Line Position
  • A position with authority and responsibility for
    achieving major organisational goals
  • Staff position
  • A position whose primary purpose is to provide
    specialised expertise and assistance to line
    positions
  • Bartol et al 95 p315

107
ORGANISING (12/12)
  • Line Authority
  • The authority following the chain of command
    established by the formal hierarchy
  • Functional Authority
  • The authority of staff departments over others
    in the organisation in matters related directly
    to their respective functions
  • Bartol et al 95 p316

108
POWER
  • Def.
  • The capacity to affect the behaviour of others.
  • Bartol et al 95 p448

109
SOURCES OF POWER (1/3)
  • Legitimate Power
  • Power stemming from a positions placement in
    the managerial hierarchy and the authority vested
    in it.
  • Coercive Power
  • Power depending on the ability to punish others
    when they do not engage in desired behaviours

110
SOURCES OF POWER (2/3)
  • Expert Power
  • Influence based on the possession of expertise,
    special skill or knowledge that others value
  • Information Power
  • Power resulting from access to and control over
    the distribution of important information ( e.g.
    about organisational operations and future plans)

111
SOURCES OF POWER (3/3)
  • Referent Power
  • Power resulting from being admired, personally
    identified with, or liked by others
  • Bartol et al 95 p448-9

112
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH POWER
  • Credibility
  • The degree to which followers perceive someone
    as honest, competent and able to inspire
  • Trust
  • The belief in the integrity, character and
    ability of a leader
  • Robbins et al 00 p620

113
PURPOSES OF ORGANISING (1/2)
  • Divides work to be done into specific jobs and
    departments
  • Assigns tasks and responsibilities associated
    with individual jobs
  • Co-ordinates diverse organisational tasks
  • Clusters jobs into units

114
PURPOSES OF ORGANISING (2/2)
  • Establishes relationships among individuals,
    groups and departments
  • Establishes formal lines of authority
  • Allocates and deploys organisational resources
  • Robbins et al 00 p351

115
FACTORS INFLUENCING SPAN OF CONTROL
  • Low interaction requirements of the job
  • High competence levels
  • Work similarity
  • Low problem frequency and seriousness
  • Physical proximity
  • Few non-supervisory duties of manager
  • Considerable available assistance
  • High motivational possibilities of work
  • Bartol et al 95 p307-8

116
DEPARTMENTALISATION (1/2)
  • Def.
  • The basis upon which jobs are grouped in order
    to accomplish organisational goals
  • Functional
  • Grouping jobs by functions performed
  • Product
  • Grouping jobs by product line

117
DEPARTMENTALISATION (2/2)
  • Geographic
  • Grouping jobs on the basis of territory or
    geography
  • Process
  • Grouping of jobs on the basis of product or
    customer flow
  • Customer
  • Grouping of jobs on the basis of common
    customers
  • Robbins et al 00 p353-6

118
ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES (1/2)
  • Mechanistic
  • An organisational structure characterised by
    high specialisation, extensive departmentalisation
    , narrow spans of control, high formalisation, a
    limited information network and little
    participation in decision-making by low-level
    employees
  • Robbins et al 00 p361

119
ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES (2/2)
  • Organic Organisation
  • An organisational structure that is highly
    adaptive and flexible with little work
    specialisation, minimal formalisation and little
    direct supervision of employees
  • Robbins et al 00 p362

120
MECHANISTIC VS ORGANIC
  • Mechanistic
  • High specialisation
  • Rigid departmentalisation
  • Clear chain of command
  • Narrow spans of control
  • Centralisation
  • High formalisation
  • Organic
  • Cross-functional teams
  • Cross hierarchical teams
  • Free flow of information
  • Wide spans of control
  • Decentralisation
  • Low formalisation
  • Robbins et al 00 p361

121
STRATEGY STRUCTURE
  • Innovators require the flexibility and free flow
    of information of an organic structure
  • Cost minimisers seek the efficiency, stability
    and tight controls of a mechanistic structure
  • Imitators use a combination of both
  • Robbins et al 00 p364

122
TECHNOLOGY STRUCTURE
  • Organisational structures tend to adapt to their
    technology
  • Generally, the more routine the technology, the
    more standard the structure can be. Organisations
    with routine technologies tend to be mechanistic,
    whilst organisations with non-routine
    technologies tend to be organic
  • Robbins et al 00 p365

123
ENVIRONMENTAL UNCERTAINTY STRUCTURE
  • Scarce resources and a dynamic and complex
    environment often require the flexibility of an
    organic structure.
  • Stable, simple environments with abundant
    resources tend to utilise mechanistic designs
  • Robbins et al 00 p367

124
CULTURAL VALUES ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES
  • Organisations mirror to a large degree the
    cultural values of their host country
  • Robbins et al 00 p367

125
APPLICATION OF ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN (1/6)
  • Simple Structure
  • An organisational design with low
    departmentalisation, wide spans of control,
    authority centralised in a single person and
    little formalisation
  • Robbins et al 00 p368

126
APPLICATION OF ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN (2/6)
  • Bureaucracy
  • An organisational arrangement based on logic,
    order and legitimate use of power
  • Functional structure - a design that groups
    similar or related occupational specialities
  • Divisional structure - a design made up of
    semi-autonomous units or divisions
  • Robbins et al 00 p370-1

127
APPLICATION OF ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN (3/6)
  • Team-based Structures
  • An organisational structure made up of work
    groups or teams that perform the organisations
    work
  • Robbins et al 00 p370

128
APPLICATION OF ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN (4/6)
  • Project and Matrix Structures
  • A matrix structure assigns specialists from
    different functional areas to work on one or more
    projects being lead by project managers
  • A project structure is one in which employees
    are permanently assigned to projects
  • Robbins et al 00 p371-2

129
APPLICATION OF ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN (5/6)
  • Autonomous Internal Units
  • A structure composed of autonomous decentralised
    business units, each with its own products,
    clients, competitors and profit goals
  • Robbins et al 00 p373

130
APPLICATION OF ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN (6/6)
  • Boundaryless Organisation
  • An organisation whose design is not defined by,
    or limited to, the horizontal, vertical or
    external boundaries imposed by a predetermined
    structure.
  • Robbins et al 00 p374

131
ORGANISING
  • We trained hard but every time we were
    beginning to form up into teams we would be
    re-organised. I was to learn later in life that
    we tend to meet many new situations by
    re-organising and a wonderful method it can be
    for creating the illusion of progress while
    producing inefficiency and demoralisation. Petro
    nius (AD 66)

132
BEHAVIOUR
  • Def
  • The actions of people
  • ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
  • The study of the actions of people at work
  • (It is concerned with individual and group
    behaviours)
  • Robbins et al 00 p485

133
INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR (1/4)
  • Areas of study included with individual
    behaviour
  • attitudes
  • personality
  • perception
  • learning and
  • motivation
  • Robbins et al 00 p485

134
INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR (2/4)
  • Attitudes
  • Evaluative statements concerning objects, people
    or events
  • Personality
  • A combination of psychological traits that
    describes a person
  • Robbins et al 00 Glossary

135
INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR (3/4)
  • Perception
  • The process of organising and interpreting
    sensory perceptions in order to give meaning to
    the environment
  • Learning
  • Any relatively permanent change in behaviour
    that occurs as a result of experience
  • Robbins et al 00 Glossary

136
INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR (4/4)
  • Motivation
  • The force that energises behaviour, gives
    direction to it, and underlies the tendency to
    persist Bartol et al 95 p415
  • The willingness to exert high levels of effort to
    reach (organisational) goals, conditioned by the
    efforts ability to satisfy some individual need
  • Robbins et al 00 p870

137
COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE
  • Cognitive
  • Beliefs, opinions, knowledge, information
  • Affective
  • Emotional or feeling
  • Behavioural
  • Intention to behave in a certain way toward
    someone or something

138
JOB-RELATED ATTITUDES (1/2)
  • Job satisfaction
  • A persons general attitude to their job
  • Job involvement
  • Degree to which a person identifies with their
    job, actively participates and the relationship
    of their performance to their self-worth
    Robbins lecturer notes p212/3

139
JOB-RELATED ATTITUDES (2/2)
  • Organisational Commitment
  • An employees orientation towards the
    organisation in terms of their loyalty to,
    identification with, and involvement in the
    organisation.
  • Robbins lecturer notes p212/3

140
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE
  • Any incompatibility between two or more
    attitudes or between behaviour and attitudes.
  • The desire to reduce dissonance is determined by
    the importance of the factors creating the
    dissonance, the degree of influence the
    individual believes they have over those factors,
    and the rewards that may be involved
  • Robbins et al 00 p488

141
GROUP
  • Two or more interacting and interdependent
    individuals who come together to achieve certain
    objectives
  • Robbins et al 00 p517

142
FORMAL GROUPS (1/2)
  • An official group created by an organisation for
    a specific purpose. There are two major types of
    formal groups
  • Command or Functional Group
  • A formal group consisting of a manager and all
    the subordinates who report to that manager
  • Bartol et al 95 p517

143
FORMAL GROUPS (2/2)
  • Task Group
  • A formal group created for a specific purpose
    supplementing or replacing work normally done by
    command groups
  • (A permanent task group may be called a standing
    committee or a team, whereas temporary task
    groups may be called ad hoc committees, task
    force, project teams)
  • Bartol et al 95 p518

144
INFORMAL GROUPS (1/2)
  • A group established by employees, rather than by
    the organisation, to serve the interests or
    social needs of group members.
  • - May or may not further the organisations
    goals
  • - Can be very powerful
  • - Two types - interest or friendship
  • Bartol et al 95 p518-9

145
INFORMAL GROUPS (2/2)
  • Interest Group
  • - Created to facilitate employee pursuits of
    common concern e.g. sport, change policy
  • Friendship Group
  • - Evolving primarily to meet employee social
    needs e.g. lunch groups, values, fishing
  • Bartol et al 95 p520

146
REASONS FOR JOINING GROUPS
  • Security
  • Status
  • Self-esteem
  • Affiliation
  • Power
  • Goal achievement
  • Robbins et al 00 pp517-9

147
STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT (1/3)
  • Forming
  • First stage in development
  • People join and define group purpose, structure
    and leadership
  • Characterised by uncertainty

148
STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT (2/3)
  • Storming
  • Characterised by intragroup conflict
  • Norming
  • Characterised by close relationships and
    cohesiveness

149
STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT (3/3)
  • Performing
  • Group is fully functional
  • Adjourning
  • Group prepares to disband due to having
    completed set tasks or failed. Responses of group
    members may vary
  • Robbins et al 00 p519/20

150
WORK TEAMS (1/3)
  • Def.
  • Formal groups made up of interdependent
    individuals, responsible for the attainment of a
    goal
  • (All work teams are groups, but only formal
    groups can be work teams)
  • Robbins et al 00 p528

151
WORK TEAMS (2/3)
  • Functional Team
  • A work team composed of a manager and their
    subordinates from a particular functional area
  • Self-directed/ Self-managed Team
  • Operates without a manager and is responsible
    for a complete process or segment that delivers a
    product or service to an external or internal
    customer

152
WORK TEAMS (3/3)
  • Cross-functional Team
  • Individuals, who are experts in various
    specialities (or functions) work together on
    organisational tasks
  • Robbins et al 00 p530

153
MOTIVATION
  • The force that energises behaviour, gives
    direction to it, and underlies the tendency to
    persist
  • Bartol et al 95 p415
  • The willingness to exert high levels of effort
    to reach (organisational) goals, conditioned by
    the efforts ability to satisfy some individual
    need
  • Robbins et al 00 p870

154
EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (1/3)
  • Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
  • Psychological needs
  • Safety needs
  • Social needs
  • Esteem needs
  • Self-actualisation needs
  • Robbins et al 00 p550

155
EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (2/3)
  • McGregors Theory X Theory Y
  • Theory X assumes people have very little
    ambition, dislike work and avoid responsibility.
    Need to be closely directed to work effectively
  • Theory Y assumes people exercise self-direction,
    accept responsibility, work is as natural as rest
    play. Need to be loosely supervised
  • Robbins et al 00 p552

156
EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (3/3)
  • Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory
  • Motivators - Intrinsic factors are related to job
    satisfaction and motivation
  • Hygiene - Extrinsic factors are associated with
    job dissatisfaction
  • Removing dissatisfying factors does not
    necessarily make job satisfying
  • Robbins et al 00 p553-4

157
CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (1/5)
  • McLellands Three-Needs Theory
  • Need for achievement - drive to excel, succeed
  • Need for power - to have others behave in a way
    they would not have otherwise
  • Need for affiliation - desire for friendly and
    close interpersonal relationships
  • Robbins et al 00 p555

158
CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (2/5)
  • Content Theories vs Process Theories
  • Need to focus on identifying what needs are
    important to each individual and allocates
    rewards accordingly. Managers need to -
  • understand how individuals differ and their needs
    from work
  • know what can be offered to individuals
  • know how to create work environments to satisfy
    employee needs
  • Robbins et al 00 p558

159
CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (3/5)
  • Goal-setting Theory
  • Specific goals increase performance and that
    difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher
    performance than easy goals
  • Reinforcement Theory
  • Reinforcers, when immediately following a
    response, increase the probability that the
    behaviour will be repeated
  • Robbins et al 00 pp558-60

160
CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (4/5)
  • Designing Motivating Jobs
  • Managers should design jobs deliberately and
    thoughtfully to reflect the demands of the
    changing environment, as well as the
    organisations technology, skills and abilities,
    and the preferences of its employees
  • Robbins et al 00 p561

161
CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (5/5)
  • Equity Theory
  • Employees compare their job inputs and outcomes
    (pay) relative to others and that inequities
    influence the degree of effort that employees
    exert
  • Expectancy Theory
  • Individuals tend to act in a certain way based on
    the expectation that the act will be followed by
    a given outcome
  • Robbins et al 00 pp565-7

162
CURRENT ISSUES IN MOTIVATION
  • Diversity in workforce
  • Hours of work, span of hours, work arrangements,
    telecommuting, culture
  • Pay-for-performance
  • Open-book Management
  • Employee Share Purchase Plans
  • Robbins et al 00 pp573-7

163
LEADERSHIP
  • Everyone in your command can do something
    better than you can. The skill of a leader is not
    to be threatened by that but to use and apply
    those skills.
  • Major-General Peter Cosgrove, Commander Interfet,
    SMH 26-2-00 p41

164
LEADERSHIP
  • LEADERSHIP
  • The process of influencing others toward
    organisational goal achievement
  • Bartol et al 95 p448
  • LEADER
  • A person who is able to influence others and who
    possess managerial authority
  • Robbins et al 00 p593

165
EARLY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP (1/3)
  • Trait Theories
  • Theories isolating characteristics that
    differentiate leaders from non-leaders
  • e.g. Drive, desire to lead, honesty and
    integrity, self-confidence, intelligence,
    job-relevant knowledge.
  • Robbins et al 00 p593-4

166
EARLY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP (2/3)
  • Behavioural Theories
  • Theories identifying behaviours that
    differentiate effective from ineffective leaders
  • Studies -
  • - University of Iowa - assessed styles
    classified as autocratic, democratic
    laissez-faire

167
EARLY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP (3/3)
  • (Behavioural Theories ctd)
  • - Ohio State University - looked at aspects of
    initiating structure and consideration
  • - University of Michigan - employee-orientation
    vs production-orientation
  • - Managerial Grid (Blake Mouton) - developed a
    2 dimensional matrix based on concerns for people
    and production
  • Robbins et al 00 p596-9

168
CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP (1/4)
  • The failure to obtain consistent results from
    trait and behavioural studies lead to a focus
    upon situational factors
  • Robbins et al 00 p600

169
CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP (2/4)
  • Models
  • Fiedler Model - effective groups depend on a
    proper match between a leaders style of
    interacting with subordinates and the degree to
    which the situation gives control and influence
    to the leader - developed LPC questionnaire to
    assess a persons basic leadership style -
    relationship or task oriented
  • Robbins et al 00 p600-3

170
CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP (3/4)
  • Hersey-Blanchard Situational Theory - the right
    leadership style is dependent upon on the level
    of the followers maturity - it is they who accept
    or reject the leader
  • Path-Goal Theory - a leaders behaviour is
    acceptable to subordinates insofar as they view
    it as a source of either immediate or future
    satisfaction - leader may display a number of
    styles dependent upon situation
    Robbins et al 00 p603-7

171
CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP (4/4)
  • Leader-Participation Model - provides a set of
    rules to determine the form and amount of
    participative decision-making in different
    situations - model set up as a decision tree
    incorporating 7 contingencies and 5 alternate
    leadership models.
  • Robbins et al 00 p608-9

172
EMERGING THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP (1/2)
  • Attribution Theory
  • Leadership is attributed as a cause and effect
    relationship to an occurrence - success or
    failure of an exercise attributed to the leader
    irrelevant of their contribution to the outcome
  • Charismatic Leadership Theory
  • Followers make attributions of heroic or
    extraordinary leadership abilities based upon
    certain behaviours that are observed
    Robbins et al 00 p610-3

173
EMERGING THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP (2/2)
  • Visionary Leadership
  • The ability to create and articulate a
    realistic, credible, attractive vision of the
    future for an organisation that grows out of and
    improves upon the present
  • Team Leadership
  • Required to manage the teams external boundary
    and facilitate the team process

174
CHANGE
  • Def.
  • An alteration to the status quo
  • Bartol et al 95 p729
  • CHANGE AGENT
  • People who act as catalysts and manage the
    change process
  • Robbins et al 00 p438

175
FORCES FOR CHANGE (1/2)
  • EXTERNAL
  • Marketplace
  • Government Laws Regulations
  • Technology
  • Labour Markets
  • Economic Changes

176
FORCES FOR CHANGE (2/2)
  • INTERNAL FORCES
  • Organisational Strategy
  • Organisations Workforce
  • Equipment
  • Employee Attitudes
  • Robbins et al 00 p437/8

177
TYPES OF CHANGE
  • REACTIVE CHANGE
  • Change occurring when one takes action in
    response to perceived difficulties, threats or
    opportunities
  • PLANNED CHANGE
  • Change involving actions based on a carefully
    thought-out process for change anticipating
    future difficulties, threats and
    opportunities Bartol et al 95 p236

178
CHANGE CYCLE
  • Bartol et al 95 p591

179
VIEWS OF THE CHANGE PROCESS
  • Calm Waters Metaphor
  • Change comes in the form of occasional
    occurrences, a brief distraction to the normal
    processes
  • White-Water Rapids Metaphor
  • Change is a natural state, and managing change
    is a continual process
  • Robbins et al 00 p440

180
REASONS FOR RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
  • Self-interest
  • Misunderstanding and lack of trust
  • Different assessments of change
  • Low tolerance for change
  • Bartol et al 95 p593-4

181
LEWINS CHANGE PROCESS MODEL
  • Unfreezing
  • Increase the driving forces
  • Decrease the restraining forces
  • Combine both
  • Change
  • Refreeze
  • Robbins et al 00 p440

182
TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING CHANGE (1/3)
  • CHANGING STRUCTURE
  • Work specialisation
  • Departmentalisation
  • Chain of command
  • Span of control
  • Centralisation
  • Formalisation
  • Job design

183
TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING CHANGE (2/3)
  • CHANGING TECHNOLOGY
  • Work processes
  • Work methods
  • Equipment

184
TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING CHANGE (3/3)
  • CHANGING PEOPLE
  • Attitudes
  • Expectations
  • Perceptions
  • Behaviour
  • Robbins et al 00 p448

185
CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN MANAGING CHANGE
  • Changing organisational cultures
  • Implementing TQM/Team approaches
  • Re-engineering
  • Managing reduced workforces
  • Becoming a learning organisation
  • Managing employee stress
  • Stimulating innovation
  • Robbins et al 00 p451-68

186
CONFLICT
  • Def.
  • Perceived incompatible differences that result
    in interference or opposition
  • Robbins et al 00 p657

187
VIEWS OF CONFLICT
  • Traditional
  • - Bad and must be avoided
  • Human Relations
  • - Natural and inevitable outcome of any
    organisation
  • Interactionist
  • - Necessary for an organisation to perform
    effectively Robbins et al
    00 p657

188
ORGANISATIONAL PERSPECTIVES CONFLICT
  • Conflict will be strongest with
  • very mature employees
  • highly structured organisations
  • formalised rules and procedures
  • fragmented and mechanised jobs
  • Bartol et al 95 p598

189
FUNCTIONAL vs DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT
  • Functional
  • Conflicts that support an organisations goals
  • Dysfunctional
  • Conflict that prevents an organisation from
    achieving its goals
  • Robbins et al 00 p658

190
CAUSES OF CONFLICT (1/2)
  • Communication Factors
  • Message is not received as intended
  • Structural Factors
  • size
  • participation
  • line/staff distinctions
  • reward systems
  • resource interdependence

191
CAUSES OF CONFLICT (2/2)
  • power
  • personal behaviour factors
  • differences in goals
  • limited resources
  • reward structures
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