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Title: Accelerated Growth for the Late Beginning Listener


1
Accelerated Growth for the Late Beginning
ListenerTypes, Tools, Teams, and Tactics
  • August 2-3, 2012
  • Mississippi Bend Area Education Agency
  • Kathryn Wilson, M.A., CCC-SLP, LSLS Cert. AVT

2
Agenda
  • Introduction
  • Types Who are they? Why do they start late?
  • Tools That Work!
  • Transitioning to Spoken Language from a Manual
    Approach
  • Teams of Parents Professionals
  • Tactics Lessons with Late Starters
  • Integration of Speech, Language, Listening
    Standards/Application

3
Learner ObjectivesParticipants will be able to
  • Describe the different types of late beginning
    listeners and possible reasons for beginning
    spoken language after the age of five years.
  • Identify tools and resources critical to the
    success of individuals beginning the learning of
    spoken language.
  • Describe the modifications in professional
    practices necessary to serve late-beginning
    listeners.
  •  

4
Learner ObjectivesParticipants will be able to
  • Explain the roles of educators, SLPs, and parents
    when spoken language is initiated past the
    optimal age.
  • Explain the specific needs of children who are
    transitioning to spoken language from a manual
    approach.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of integrated lesson plans
    i.e. academics, speech, language, and listening.
  • Develop lesson plans integrating academic content
    related to the Iowa Core Standards with speech,
    language, and auditory targets.

5
Being Late The Consequences
6
Introduction
7
Points to ponder
  • What do parents want for their child?
  • I want my child to.
  • What are the advantages of being able to
    understand and use spoken language?

8
  • If accelerated spoken language growth is
    essential to achieve the long-term goal, what is
    the most effective modality for the acquisition
    of spoken language?

9
Auditory Brain DevelopmentWhat Do We Know?
  • The infant brain is loaded with auditory
    designated tissue.
  • Initially neurons in the auditory cortex are like
    laborers with no job assignments.
  • Neuro-plasticity is greatest during the first 3
    ½ years of life.
  • The auditory system is not fully developed until
    age 15.

10
Auditory Brain DevelopmentWhat Do We know?
  • Before 3 ½ is optimal. The auditory system is
    not mature until age 15 so.
  • How late is too late? 6? 7? 8?

11
Our task..Preparing children for the workplace
in the 21st Century
  • By the mid-1990s, entry level jobs required
    higher reading skills than the lowest 40-50 of
    our high school students. Education is not doing
    worse

12
  • the job market now demands higher minimum verbal
    and math skills to find employment than it does
    to go to college. (p. 151 Fielding, et al., 2007)

13
Can we all agree?
  • In the US, public schools deliver 85 or more of
    their curriculum by reading textbooks,
    whiteboards, worksheets, and computer screens.
    Students must read well to do well. It matters
    little what else they learn in elementary school
    if they do not learn to read at grade level. (p.
    48, Fielding et.al., 2007)

14
For children who are deaf or hard of hearing
  • The median Reading Comprehension subtest score
    corresponds to about a 4.0 grade level at age 18.
    (Gallaudet Research Institute, 2003)

15
Not solely a public school problem
  • The achievement gap in reading is created BEFORE
    the first day of Kindergarten

16
Incoming Kindergarten Targets
  1. Speak fluently and in complete sentences with a
    vocabulary of about 5,000 words.
  2. Recognize name 10-15 alphabet letters/sounds.
  3. Hear repeat beginning/ending sounds.
  4. Count in order from 1-20.
  5. Recognize numbers and quantities up to 10.
  6. Settle into new groups or situations.
  7. Concentrate on a task for 5 minutes
  8. Come to school speaking English, if other
    languages are spoken at home.

17
Past Performance (4th grade reading level) is not
good enough
  • Students in Grades 3-8 must achieve a proficiency
    target of 71.6 in reading and 88.6 in
    mathmeaning 71.6 of ALL students must achieve
    Level III or Level IV in reading.
  • Students performing at Level III consistently
    demonstrate mastery of grade-level subject matter
    and skills and are well prepared for the next
    grade level.
  • Students performing at Level IV consistently
    perform in a superior manner clearly beyond that
    required to be proficient at grade-level work.
  • ARE YOUR STUDENTS ACHIEVING PROFICIENCY?

18
And better reading instruction
  • WILL NOT cure the poor reading scores of late
    beginning listeners with severe language delay.

19
Late Beginning Listeners
20
Who Are They?
  • A/O Education/relatively good language
  • Incomplete signal for learning spoken language
  • Good Language learned via a non-auditory system
  • Dependent on visual input
  • May/may not have utilized appropriately fit
    hearing aids/FM
  • Newly implanted child will not be able to process
    connected discourse through hearing alone.
    Implications for the mainstream.

21
Who Are They?
  • Delayed language learned pre optimal
    amplification or via non auditory system
  • Placement in special classes or sitting in the
    mainstream
  • Implanted with the expectation that the CI will
    fix the language delay
  • Changes in speech production will take time
  • Little or no language of any kind
  • Self-contained
  • Language processing concerns?
  • Parents may not have demonstrated commitment to
    any communication approach or amplification

22
Who Are They?
  • Early Start-Downhill from there
  • UNHS alone is not enough
  • Early identified infants require aggressive
    audiological management and optimal amplification
    in combination with early intervention
  • Factors contributing to poor outcomes for this
    group
  • Quality of Services
  • Consistency of services

23
Who Are They?
  • Children from non-English speaking homes
  • Inconsistent or no amplification
  • No language systemprimarily gestural
  • Little or no home-school communication
  • Low expectations
  • Limited/no access to optimal audiological
    management technology

24
Implanted very late- seeking a miracle
  • Essentially nothing working in childs favor to
    suggest spoken language potential
  • Length of deprivation
  • No formal communication system of any kind
  • Inconsistent or no use of amplification
  • Parent wants YOU to fix the problem
  • This situation requires thorough, complete, and
    careful documentation of all information shared
    with parents.

25
Evaluation
  • Discuss the types of late beginning listeners on
    your caseload or in your class. Develop a list of
    questions regarding your concerns about these
    students what you are currently doing to help
    them close the gap, and what you expect to learn
    during this workshop to effectively meet the
    needs of late beginning listeners.

26
Typical Scenario Late Start Large Gaps
between Language Age Class Age
  • Mainstreamed for all possible subjects math,
    science, SS, PE
  • Time for special intervention is determined by
    subjects child can be taken out for
  • TOD reading/language tutoring (post-test)
  • SLP spoken and/or written language (using
    commercially available language curricula,
    vocabulary program, lists of idioms, etc.
  • Goal Keep his head above water"

27
  • The Tools that Promote Planning and Facilitating
    Accelerated Growth

28
Practices that work..
  • What It Takes
  • Assessment Application of the Data
  • Time
  • Increased Instructional Time
  • Retention
  • Long Term Planning
  • Superb Teaching

29
What It Takes
  • Tool to dialogue with parents about critical
    conditions for the late starter
  • Tool to dialogue among school team members about
    necessary conditions at school

30
Assessing the Situation
  • Conduct diagnostic testing to determine deficient
    sub-skills.
  • Look at the data to identify the weak subskill(s)
    and pinpoint the need(s).
  • The deficient sub-skill is __________ for late
    beginning listeners with a large gap between
    CA/grade placement and reading level.
  • Understand the data
  • Develop and implement a long-term plan to close
    the language gap.
  • Re-test

31
Time What does Increased Instructional Time
mean?
  • A drastic increase in face-to-face time
  • It is eyeball-to-eyeball, highly energetic, and
    highly interactive.
  • A drastic decrease in screen time, worksheets
    and practice exercises
  • Direct instructional time is too valuable to
    waste practicing. Students can practice later in
    the day or after school.

32
Time What does Increased Instructional Time
mean?
  • Time to focus on the deficit sub-skill(s).
  • Direct instruction is proportional to the
    deficiency. The greater the deficiency, the more
    time they get.
  • Some children may require instruction that is 4
    or 5 times more powerful than the rest of the
    students (Crawford, 2007)

33
Example
  • Vocabulary Target Age appropriate vocabulary
  • At age 5.0 SS 56 of and percentile rank of 0.2 on
    the PPVT-4.
  • Johnny is entering Kindergarten with the language
    of the typical 2 year, 3 month old3 years
    behind.
  • Service Delivery for Johnnys Pre-school
    Services
  • Speech-Language Services 150 minutes weekly
  • TOD 120 minutes weekly
  • 1 hr direct instruction daily Annual Growth BUT
    No Catch-Up Growth

34
Accelerated Growth Plan..
  • Time for annual growth 60 minutes
  • (based on past two years of data)
  • At Chronological Age 6.0, Johnnys Vocabulary Age
    will be ____ if he makes annual growth. The
    difference between his C.A. and L.A. is still
    ____years.
  • If we double the daily minutes for direct
    instruction (120 minutes) in Kindergarten, we can
    project that he will make annual growth plus a
    year of catch-up growth. At the end of
    Kindergarten, his Language Age is projected to be
    _____years.
  • If we provide the same amount of instruction
    during 1st grade, we can project a Language Age
    of _______at the end of 1st grade.

35
An Accelerated Growth Plan for Oral Language-
  • Brainstorm major areas of instruction in spoken
    language development
  • Vocabulary Development, _______, _______,
    ________
  • Now put them on Steroids

36
What would Vocabulary Development look likeon
Steroids?
  • Rapid Acquisition of Vocabulary handout
  • Get organized!!
  • About where new words come from
  • With weekly Lists at school home
  • With weekly emails to entire team
  • With clear incentives for child
  • Get MOVING!! through your hierarchy as rapidly as
    possible.
  • Get off of input and onto use quickly to help
    child own a new word.

37
What would Speech Development look likeon
Steroids?
38
What other deficient language-based sub-skills
need steroids before reading can improve?
  • __________
  • __________
  • __________

39
Take away
  • Directing instruction to the deficient sub-skill
    is fundamentally different than re-teaching the
    mornings lesson (p. 237. Fielding et. al., 2007)

40
More Tools.
41
The BIG QuestionRetention OR Social Promotion
  • What does the research say?
  • Grade retention and social promotion are not
    effective strategies
  • Reading deficits account for the majority of
    retentions
  • Students who are retained actually do worse in
    the long rungive up on themselves as learners

42
Reasons to Retain
  • Time
  • Time
  • TIME
  • AND.
  • TIME to do something different i.e. provide
    appropriate, specific remediation to address
    deficits. 2003 NASP Position Statement on Student
    Grade Retention and Social Promotion
  • 2003 NASP Statement on Student Grade Retention
    and Social Promotion
  • T

43
  • Most important is to advocate for implementation
    of educational interventions that are supported
    by research first, continue monitoring the
    child's achievement trajectory, and then revisit
    the progress made.
  • NASP..(retrieved from http//www.cdl.org/resource
    -library/articles/grade_retention.php)

44
Remember the typical scenario?
  • Appropriate Scenario Teach him to swim!
  • Rather than patching holes year to year, consider
    childs long range goals and work backward.

45
GNIKNIHT SDRAWKCAB
46
  • Consider gap between LONG RANGE goal and current
    level of function then make a long term plan

47
Developing a Long Term Plan
  • What is the purpose of a Long Term Plan
  • What are the components of a Long Term Plan?
  • Background History Hunter

48
Hunter
  • C.A. L.A. C.A.-L.A. Grade
  • 3.0 1.0 2.0 pre-k
  • 4.0 no data pre-k
  • 5.0 no data pre-k
  • 6.0 no data K
  • 7.0 3.0 4.0 1
  • Projecting
  • 8.0 3.6 4.6 2
  • 9.0 4.0 5.0 3
  • 10.0 4.6 5.6 4
  • 11.0 5.0 6.0 5

49
Superb Teaching- Big 2!
  • Quantity of Direct Instructional Time
  • Quality of Instruction-Where are you?
  • I create minimal growth.
  • I create average growth.
  • I create accelerated growth.
  • Point to Ponder"Adults who consistently do not
    and cannot create double annual growth should not
    continue to be in charge of creating it for that
    critical population of students who require it.
    (Fielding, 2009)

50
Evaluation
  • Develop a Long-Term Plan for the following
    case 15 points
  • Andrew is 9 years of age. Andrew was identified
    with a severe-profound hearing loss at 18 months
    of age. He utilized hearing aids and a TC
    approach until 4 years of age. He received a CI
    and transitioned to a spoken language approach at
    that time. Recent testing indicates his
    expressive language/vocabulary is like that of
    the typical 4 year old.

51
Transitioning to Spoken Language from a Manual
Approach
52
Service Delivery Transition from Manual/Oral to
Auditory, Language Age Appropriate
  • Transition Involves
  • Multiple stages
  • Begin _at_ Beginning
  • Although child is older, auditory learning is not
    necessarily slow
  • Likely change in placement
  • Use assessment of competencies for transition
    from manual to spoken learning environment (w/out
    interpreter) (Boston Center
    checklist Children with CIs Who Sign
    Guidelines)
  • Change in interpreters role
  • Interpreter ? Language Facilitator ? no role
  • A written plan attached to IEP re interpreters
    role (sample plan handout)

53
New Expectations for Parents and Professionals
  • His implant went down this week so we sent his
    interpreter into class with him until he can get
    remapped.
  • Optimal Amplification is a must not a perk
  • Top priority for AUD and TOD and SLP
  • FM or SF functioning well in classroom
  • SF system for individual sessions
  • We have been signing with her for six years. Do
    we just drop the signs?
  • Initially accept childs signs but dont teach
    new sign

54
  • Are you saying we go all the way back to the
    Learning to Listen sounds with an eight year
    old?
  • Go back to the beginning (of auditory hierarchy)
  • Evidence of progress with perception will likely
    be faster than with babies d/t _________________

55
Insure Success Success Success for Late Starters
  • Youre asking him to do something new and hard
    (listen) when hed rather do what hes
    comfortable with. (sign or cue) How am I supposed
    to keep him motivated?
  • Increase auditory/ Decrease visual in all
    communication using K Bs top ten

56
K Bs Top Ten Strategies for Early SUCCESS with
Late Beginning Listeners
  1. Insure optimal listening conditions. Always
    control ____ and ____.
  2. Insure auditory attention before speaking
  3. Provide abundant context with your auditory input
    (show object, look at object, model the action)
  4. Provide opportunities all day long for the child
    to hear common phrases, questions, directions
    repeated-repeated-repeated in a natural way
  5. Auditory input before showing pictures,
    performing action

57
  1. Use Parentese (even with a 10 year old)
  2. Use Acoustic Highlighting
  3. Allow time to process after input is given (count
    to 10)
  4. If he fails to process through audition alone,
    use A-V-A, auditory sandwich, give the
    visual input then put it back into hearing
  5. _____________________________________

58
  • He already has so much language. I cant break
    down everything I need to say to him into short
    phrases!
  • For children who transition to auditory/oral with
    sophisticated manual language(in the beginning)
  • For longer utterances, give via vision audition
  • then put it back into hearing
  • until child can process 3 critical elements
  • At that point, auditory first for ALL info using
    abundant acoustic highlighting for key words

59
The Biggest Challenge?
  • Changing speech patterns learned on a
    non-auditory model
  • For improved speech in a late starter, GO BACK to
    the beginning!
  • Allow the child to progress through stages
  • Use audition as avenue for speech change
  • The priority is VOICE VOICE VOICE

60
  • The Team of Parents and Professionals for the
    Late Beginning Listener

61
The Traditional Team
  • Parents
  • Administrators
  • Teacher of the Deaf
  • Regular Classroom Teacher
  • Speech-Language Pathologist

Walker Wilson 2011
62
Big Questions about service delivery to late
starters
  • What are the critical areas of instruction for
    late starters?
  • What knowledge, skills and abilities are needed
    to provide this instruction?
  • Who is responsible for each area?
  • How can the traditional team possibly cover all
    this material?

Walker Wilson 2011
63
Parent Guidance for the Late Beginning Listener
  • I have always considered educating my kids as
    one of my primary jobs as a parent. The public
    schools are there to help me do my job. Dave
    Bond, Superintendent, Kennewick, WA, School
    District

64
Parent Guidance for the Late Beginning Listener
  • Parental Roles and Responsibilities
  • What are they?
  • ..
  • ..

65
Why must parents participate in weekly sessions?
  • Parents of late beginning listeners need guidance
    and support to
  • focus on learning through listening
  • eliminate established communication habits that
    slow auditory learning
  • learn, practice, and consistently apply a variety
    of strategies and techniques
  • Wait time
  • Acoustic highlighting
  • Repetition
  • .
  • .

66
  • identify appropriate ways to carry-over weekly
    goals at home
  • become childs advocate and be accountable for
    what happens in between sessions.
  • adjust childs activities or schedule to reflect
    NEW priority for spoken language/literacy
    development
  • other ideas???

67
Dialoguing with AdministratorsIts our job?
(or your job)
  • There are three compelling reasons to have
    courageous conversations
  • First, it is impossible to create an environment
    of trust without risking speaking your truth.
  • Second, if you do not express matters that
    concern you, it will add to your level of stress.
  • Third, when you dont say whats on your mind,
    your sense of personal satisfaction and
    competence suffers. (Sanderson, 2006)

68
Dialoguing with Administrators
  • Gather good data.
  • Make an appointment.
  • Pre-script/role play what you want to say. Make
    notes and use them during the meeting.
  • Define the problem clearly with examples. Use
    simple charts or graphs that make it easy for the
    administrator to see the current and long-term
    picture for the child and the school system.
  • Be straightforward and clear about what
    outcome/changes you seek.
  • Tell the administrator the impact that making
    necessary changes will have from a positive
    perspective.

69
  • The Traditional Curriculum and Spoken Language
    Targets
  • Integration of Speech, Language, and Listening
    with Academics

70
Lesson Plan for a Late Beginning
Listener/Integration of Audition/Speech/Language
Academics
  • View/analyze/discuss video lesson plan that
    includes goals from the
  • Core Standards
  • Auditory Learning Guide
  • Model for Normal Language Development
  • New Vocabulary New Language Structures
  • Normal Speech Milestones
  • Strategies that promote auditory learning
  • See Sample Lesson Plan Lexie

Walker Wilson 2011
71
Lesson Plan for a Late Starter Integration of
Audition/Academics
  • Lexie Language Sample 2006 (age 4 1/2)
  • Open
  • Uh-oh
  • No
  • Doggie
  • Daddy
  • Stop
  • More
  • Milk
  • Bye-bye
  • Bird
  • Meow
  • Horse

72
Lexie Language Sample 2008 (age 6- one year
into aggressive LS program)
  • Look.
  • See, it dirty.
  • How bout this one?
  • Look! Look!
  • What is that?
  • No, but thank you.
  • What doing?
  • It writing.
  • Sunny go down
  • It night.
  • It dark.
  • This one.
  • I want this one.
  • All the dress missing
  • Help you.
  • I need help.
  • Oh, wait.
  • I get it.
  • I got it!
  • Hey!
  • I take it off.
  • Ooo, shiny
  • So shiny
  • No!
  • Dont take it off!
  • Turn page
  • Stay there.
  • Close door.
  • Dont open.
  • Potty!
  • I got potty!
  • I need potty!

Walker Wilson 2011
73
Independent Practice
  • Work with partners to develop an integrated
    lesson plan using the Core Standards and
    language, speech, and auditory hierarchies
    described in class.
  • Include in the plan
  • A brief description of your student i.e.
    age/grade level/language age/communication
    approach.

74
Independent Practice
  • At least 2 standards, 1 language target, 1 speech
    target and 1 auditory target.
  • Include a description of your materials,
    activity, and procedure.

75
Evaluation
  • Write a 2-3 page paper (double-spaced) describing
    what you have learned and your implementation
    plan. Include specific information about what
    changes you will make in your practice and
    teaching and how you expect your students to
    benefit as a result of your participation in this
    professional learning activity. .

76
  • We never really leave our non-reading children
    behind. We may forget about them, but we are
    chained to them socially and economically. Like
    a ship and its anchor, we must either lift them
    up or drag them along behind us. It is time to
    teach our children to read. Its the promise of
    education. There is no ethical or professional
    way to sidestep the obligation to deliver on that
    promise.
  • (L. Fielding, 2007)

Walker Wilson 2011
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