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Interaction Styles

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Interaction Styles Direct Manipulation Menu selection, Form Fillin, Dialog boxes Command Languages, Natural Languages Course 6, CMC, 07/10/03 Toward an Interaction ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Interaction Styles


1
Interaction Styles
  • Direct Manipulation
  • Menu selection, Form Fillin, Dialog boxes
  • Command Languages, Natural Languages
  • Course 6, CMC, 07/10/03

2
Toward an Interaction Style
  • High concept definition
  • functionality
  • goals
  • benefits
  • Task analysis
  • users and tasks
  • Choice of interaction style
  • easy to learn, to apply, to retain over time
  • relevant to users task

3
OAI model
4
Direct Manipulation 3 integrated principles
  • Continuous representation of objects and actions
    of interest with meaningful visual metaphors
  • Physical actions or presses of labeled buttons
    instead of complex syntax
  • Rapid incremental reversible operations whose
    effect on objects of interest is visible
    immediately

5
Visual Thinking and Icons
  • Commercial graphic designers, semiotically
    oriented academics, data-visualization gurus
  • Preferences vary by user and by task
  • Icons or Text?
  • How to design icons?
  • Sound and Animation added?

6
Problems with Direct Manipulation
  • Visual representations too large for screen, too
    detailed
  • Visual representations without obvious meaning
  • Misleading metaphors
  • Shift hardware devices

7
Menu Selection
  • Effective recognition
  • Early systems (selection via keyboard)
  • full screen menus numbered, textual
  • Modern systems (selection by mouse clicks)
  • pull-down and pop-up menus
  • radio buttons and check boxes
  • embedded links
  • menu items textual, graphic, auditory

8
Organization Menu Items
  • Meaningful Superiority categorical menu
    organization over alphabetical organization
  • Menu structures single menus linear sequence of
    menus strict tree structures acyclic networks
    cyclic networks
  • Key to menu structure task-related objects and
    actions

9
Single Menus
  • binary menus
  • multiple-item menus
  • multiple-selection menus (check boxes)
  • pull-down and pop-up menus
  • scrolling and two-dimensional menus
  • alphasliders
  • embedded links
  • iconic menus, toolbars, palettes

10
Alphaslider
11
(No Transcript)
12
Embedded Links (example)Glosser
13
Tree Structures
14
Pull-down menu (example)
15
Pie menu (example)
16
Tree-Structured Menus Problems
  • overlapping categories
  • extraneous items
  • conflicting classifications
  • unfamiliar jargon
  • generic terms
  • too many levels
  • users loss of orientation

17
Suggested Rules
  • create task-related groups of logically similar
    items
  • form groups that cover all possibilities
  • make sure that items ar nonoverlapping
  • use familiar terminology, but ensure that items
    are distinct from one another
  • the fewer the levels, the greater the ease of
    decision making
  • add menu map to help users stay oriented

18
Sequence of Item Presentation
  • There is a task-related ordering
  • chronological
  • increasing/decreasing (number, length, volume,
    temperature, )
  • There is no task-related ordering
  • alphabetic
  • grouping of related items
  • most frequently used first
  • most important first

19
Response Time Display Rate
  • Long response times
  • Slow display rates
  • Use command language
  • Greater memory demands
  • Short response times
  • Rapid display rates
  • Use menu selection
  • Cues to elicit recognition

20
Form Fillin
  • Many fields of data are necessary
  • Some guidelines from practitioners
  • meaningful title
  • comprehensible instructions
  • logical grouping and sequencing of fields
  • familiar field labels
  • error prevention, correction, messages
  • completion signal
  • List- and Combo Boxes, Coded Fields

21
Dialog Boxes
  • Combine Menu Selection and Form Fillin
  • Additional concerns
  • consistency across all system dialog boxes
  • relationships with other items on screen
  • Guidelines for internal layout and external
    relationships

22
Dialog Box (example)
23
Command Languages
  • Strategies for command syntax
  • simple command set
  • command argument(s) DELETE FILEA
  • command option(s) argument(s)
  • PRINT/3, HQ FILEA
  • A0821DCALGA0300P
  • hierarchical command structure
  • CREATE FILEA LOCPR1
  • DISPLAY DIR1 SCR2

24
Command Languages
  • meaningful structure
  • consistent argument ordering
  • keywords vs. Symbols
  • change all KO to OK vs. RS /KO/, /OK/
  • congruent hierarchical forms of commands
  • move robot forward vs. advance vs. go
  • move robot backward vs. retreat vs. Back
  • naming and abbreviations

25
Natural Language in Computing
  • Natural-language interaction
  • restricted to specific tasks
  • \erase worksheet \insert row \total all columns
  • annoying cursor movements from object to toolbar
  • automatic speech for selecting painting tools
  • Natural-language Queries
  • Text-database Searching
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