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Matter, Energy

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Chapter 2 Matter, Energy & Change W/ Concept Mapping – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Matter, Energy


1
Chapter 2
  • Matter, Energy Change
  • W/ Concept Mapping

2
Chapter Objectives
  • TSW be able to apply the skill of concept mapping
    as a means of organizing the classification of
    matter system.
  • TSW have a solid understanding of how our
    universe is composed of different arrangements
    combinations of the known 113 elements.
  • TSW be able to differentiate between physical and
    chemical properties and physical and chemical
    changes
  • TSW be able to distinguish between intensive and
    extensive properties
  • TSW be able to identify changes as endothermic or
    exothermic and display an understanding that
    energy is involved in all changes of matter.

3
Matter is
  • By definition matter is anything that has mass
    and volume (or takes up space)
  • Since everything has mass and takes up
    spaceeverything we see and touch is composed of
    matter.
  • The Building Blocks of matter are atoms.

4
Mass vs. Weight
  • We use these terms interchangeably, however, they
    do have different meanings when used correctly.
  • Mass is defined as a measure of the amount of
    matter in a sample.
  • Weight is defined as a measure of the pull of
    gravity on a sample of matter.
  • Mass would remain constant anywhere in the
    universe, however, the weight would change.

5
Atoms
  • An atom is the smallest portion of an element
    that retains the unique properties of that
    element.
  • We will learn more about atoms in the next
    chapter.

6
Pure Substances
  • Are any materials with a fixed composition having
    definite set of physical and chemical properties
  • There two types of pure substances
  • Elements unique arrangements of electrons,
    protons and neutrons that specific properties.
  • Compounds two or more element chemically
    connected with definite composition and
    arrangements.

7
Examples
  • Elements
  • Na sodium
  • O2 oxygen
  • Compounds
  • MgCl2 Magnesium Chloride
  • H2O Water
  • H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide

8
Mixtures
  • Are materials with two or more pure substances
    mixed together but not chemically connected to
    one another.
  • There are two types of mixtures
  • Homogeneous one phase with uniform distribution
    of particles
  • Heterogeneous clusters of atoms with two or
    more phases and a non-uniform distribution of
    particles.

9
Properties of Matter
  • Every pure substance has a definite set of
    physical and chemical properties that exist even
    in the smallest sized sample.
  • We can use these properties to identify a pure
    substance.

10
Chemical Property
  • A Chemical Property is one that can only be
    observed during the course of a chemical change.
  • There are four tell tale signs that a chemical
    change is occurring
  • A release of a gas
  • A change of color
  • A release or absorption of heat and/or light
  • Formation of a precipitate

11
A Precipitate?
  • A precipitate is a solid that is produced from
    two liquid reactants.
  • Example Pb(NO3)2 KI ? Yellow Precipitate

12
Examples of Chemical Properties
  • Flammability
  • Reactivity
  • Stability

13
Chemical Changes
  • A Change that results in a new substance that has
    a different arrangement of atoms with a set of
    chemical and physical properties different from
    the substance we started with.

14
Physical Properties
  • A physical property is one which can be observed
    in the absence of a chemical change.
  • Mass
  • Density
  • MP/BP
  • Conductivity
  • Color
  • Malleability
  • Physical State

Every element, compound or molecule has a unique
combination of these properties that allow us to
use them in separating them from a mixture.
15
Intensive Extensive
  • Some properties depend on the amount of the
    substance present and others do not
  • An Intensive property is one that does not depend
    on the amount of substance present.
  • An Extensive property is one that is dependant on
    the amount of the substance present.

16
Density
  • Density is one of the most useful intensive
    physical properties.
  • We can observe that each substance has its own
    unique valuethus we can determine the density of
    any unknown and use it to determine the
    substances identity.
  • The formula for density is
  • D mass / volume

17
Physical States of Matter
  • Solid Sample of matter that has a definite
    volume and shape.
  • Liquid Sample of matter that has a definite
    volume, but it adopts the shape of any container.
  • Gas Sample of matter that has neither a
    definite shape nor definite volume.
  • Plasma Sample of matter at high temperature
    where individual atoms lose their electrons.

18
Physical Changes
  • These are changes in the appearance of a
    substance, not in the identity of a sample of
    matter.
  • One example of this would be a change in the
    physical state that a sample of matter exists in.
  • Example Ice (solid water) melting into liquid
    water.

19
Changes in State
  • You will see throughout the course that energy is
    involved in all changes, both chemical and
    physical changes
  • That means that changes in state are also
    displays of changes in energy.

20
More About Change
  • When a change occurs and energy is lost it is
    called exothermicthink of it this way
  • Exo ? Exiting the system
  • When a change occurs and energy is absorbed it is
    called endothermicthink of it this way
  • Endo ? Entering the system

21
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22
Law of Conservation of Matter
  • States
  • The amount of matter in the universe is constant
  • Matter cannot be created or destroyed only change
    form.
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