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Matter and Change

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Matter and Change Chapter 1 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Matter and Change


1
Matter and Change
  • Chapter 1

2
1-1 Chemistry is a Physical Science
  • Chemistry is a Central Science it overlaps all
    other sciences.
  • It is the study of the composition, structure,
    and properties of matter and the changes it
    undergoes.
  • It is considered a physical science.

3
  • Instruments are often used to extend ones
    ability to observe and make measurements on
    matter.
  • ALL matter- living, non-living or artificial- has
    a chemical basis.

4
Branches of Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry-
  • Physical Chemistry-
  • Analytical Chemistry-
  • Biochemistry-
  • Theoretical Chemistry-

5
What is a Chemical?
  • Chemical any substance that has a definite
    composition.
  • Glucose, water, carbon dioxide, nylon
  • Knowing the properties of chemicals allows
    scientists to understand uses.

6
Basic Research
  • Is carried out for the sake of increasing
    knowledge, driven by the desire to know.
  • Can explain the hows and whys of a Rxn,
    properties of substances,
  • Example DOW Chemical examines all Rxns
    involving chlorine.

7
Applied Research
  • This research is carried out to solve a specific
    problem.
  • Example DOW chemical examines how chlorine can
    be used as a disinfectant in drinking water.

8
Technological Development
  • Involves the production and use of products that
    improve the quality of life.
  • Technological development of a chemical product
    often lags behind basic research on the same
    substance.
  • Example DOW chemical developed a more efficient
    method of disinfecting water.

9
1-2 Matter and Its Properties
  • Matter anything that has mass and volume.

10
2 General Properties of all matter
  • Volume how much space an object takes up.
  • Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an
    object.

11
Basic Building Blocks of Matter
  • Atom the smallest unit of an element that
    maintains the properties of that element.
  • Element a pure substance made of only one kind
    of atom.

12
Basic Building Blocks of Matter
  • Compound a substance that is made from the
    atoms of two or more elements that are chemically
    bonded.
  • A molecule can also be considered a compound
    which binds together only nonmetals.
  • Water (H2O) is a molecule which contains the
    elements hydrogen and oxygen. 1 atom oxygen, 2
    atoms hydrogen.

13
Properties and Changes in Matter
  • Properties of matter can be used to distinguish
    between substances, separate them, and to
    classify substances.

14
Properties and Changes in Matter
  • Extensive Properties depend on the amount of
    matter that is present.
  • Examples Volume, Mass,
  • Intensive Properties do NOT depend on the
    amount of matter present.
  • Examples MP, BP, density,

15
Physical Properties and Physical Changes
  • Physical Property characteristic of a substance
    that can be observed without altering the
    identity of a substance.
  • MP of water ? 0?C
  • BP of water ? 100?C

16
Physical Properties and Physical Changes
  • Physical Change process by which a substance
    undergoes a change that does not alter its
    identity.
  • Example cutting, grinding, melting, boiling,
    tearing, painting,

17
Physical Properties and Physical Changes
  • Change of State physical change of a substance
    from one phase(state) of matter to another
  • Melting ? solid to liquid
  • Boiling ? liquid to gas
  • A change of state does not alter the identity of
    a substance
  • If water boils, it is still water

18
4 States of Matter
  • Solid definite volume and shape
  • Liquid definite volume, no definite shape
  • Gas no definite volume, no definite shape
  • Plasma - no definite volume, no definite shape

19
Chemical Properties
  • Chemical Property characteristic of a substance
    that cannot be observed without altering the
    identity of the substance.
  • Transfers one substance into another.
  • Observed when a chemical changes into a new
    substance
  • Example gasoline burns in oxygen to form water
    and carbon dioxide

20
Chemical Changes
  • Chemical Change (Chemical Rxn) a change in
    which one or more substances are converted into
    different substances.
  • Example Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide
  • Reactant ? Product
  • Hydrogen peroxide ? water oxygen gas

21
Chemical Changes
  • Example Burning Charcoal
  • Carbon oxygen ? carbon dioxide
  • During any chemical Rxn, the amount of matter
    (and mass) remains the same

22
Energy and Changes in Matter
  • When physical and chemical changes occur, energy
    usually is transferred.
  • Energy can be absorbed or released, but energy
    cannot be created nor destroyed. ? Law of
    Conservation of Energy

23
Classification of Matter
  • See fig. 1-8, pg. 15
  • Mixture is a blend of two or more kinds of
    matter, each which retains its own identity and
    properties.
  • Parts are just mixed together.

24
Two Types of Mixtures
  • Homogenous mixture mixture uniform in
    composition.
  • Example sugar water, Air, Flat Pop,

25
Two Types of Mixtures
  • Heterogeneous mixture mixture which are NOT
    uniform throughout.
  • Often has its own visible parts.
  • Example Iron ore, rock, cookie, milk,
  • Discuss Filtering Techniques Fig. 1-9, pg. 16

26
Pure Substance
  • Has a fixed composition.
  • Has exactly the same characteristic properties.
  • Has exactly the same composition.
  • Can be either compounds or elements.
  • Example Water, pure metals, oxygen gas,

27
1-3 Elements
  • Elements are pure substances which cannot be
    broken down by chemical means.
  • Use blank periodic table we created in class to
    understand key terms.
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