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Introduction: Matter and Measurement

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Chapter 1 Introduction: Matter and Measurement * Properties of Matter Physical property: a property that can be observed without changing the identity and composition ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction: Matter and Measurement


1
Chapter 1
  • Introduction Matter and Measurement

2
Properties of Matter
  • Physical property a property that can be
    observed without changing the identity and
    composition of the substance

Chemical property a property that describes the
way a substance may react to form other substances
3
Properties of Matter
  • Intensive property a property that depends on
    the identity of the substance

Extensive property a property that depends on
the amount of the substance
4
Changes in Matter
  • Physical change a substance changes its
    physical appearance but not its composition

Chemical change a substance is transformed in a
chemically different substance
5
Units of Measurement
6
SI Units
7
Metric System
8
Temperature
  • The Celsius and Kelvin scales are those commonly
    used in science.

0 C 273 K
9
Derived Units
  • Volume and density are considered derived units
    because they are made up of SI units.

10
Uncertainty in Measurements
11
Significant Figures
  • 1) All nonzero digits are significant
  • 2) All zeros in between nonzero digits are
    significant
  • 3) Zero at the beginning of a number are never
    significant

74198 has 5 sig figs
3705 has 4 sig figs
0.0064 has 2 sig figs
12
Significant Figures
  • 4) Zeros at the end of a number are only
    significant if there is a decimal in the number
  • 5) Counted numbers and conversion factors have
    an unlimited number of sig figs

13
Significant Figures
  • When you add or subtract using sig figs, the
    answer has the same number of decimal places as
    the number with the least decimal places.
  • When you multiply or divide using sig figs, the
    answer has the same number of sig figs as the
    number with the least sig figs.

14
Accuracy and Precision
  • Accuracy how close a measurement is to its
    correct value
  • Precision how closely individual measurements
    agree with one another
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