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Matter and Change

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Matter and Change What is Matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Properties Used to identify a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Matter and Change


1
  • Matter and Change

2
What is Matter?
  • Matter is anything that takes up space and has
    mass.
  • Mass is the amount of matter in an object.

3
Properties
  • Used to identify a substance
  • Extensive Properties- changes when the amount of
    matter in a sample changes. Examples are mass,
    volume, length.
  • Intensive Properties- does not change when the
    amount of sample changes. Examples are density,
    pressure, temperature, color

4
Properties
  • Words that describe matter (adjectives)
  • Physical Properties- a property that can be
    observed and measured without changing the
    substance. (malleable, ductile, luster, phase
    changes)
  • Chemical Properties- a property that can only be
    observed by changing the type of substance.
    (burning)

5
Physical Change
  • Physical change- original substance exists

6
Chemical Change
  • Chemical change- a new substance is produced
    (reactants lose identity)
  • reactants

products
7
Indications of a chemical reaction
  • Energy absorbed (endothermic) or released
    (exothermic)
  • Color change
  • Release of gas
  • Precipitate-solid that separates from solution
    (insoluble, (s) subscript in products)

Temperature of surroundings goes up
Temperature of surroundings goes down
8
Types of Matter
  • Substance- an element or a compound
  • Element- simplest kind of matter that cannot
    be broken down into simpler substances by
    chemical means. (All one kind of atom)

Can be any element! B, Mg, Ar, Li, S
9
Types of Matter
  • Element- can be monatomic or diatomic
  • Mono- single (Li, Mn, He)
  • Di- two (Br2, I2, N2, Cl2, H2, O2, F2)

10
Diatomic Elements
H2
N2
O2
F2
Cl2
Br2
I2
11
Types of Matter
  • Elements can be allotropes
  • Definition different forms of the same
  • element

O2 is oxygen O3 is ozone
Each contain only the element oxygen, but have
different properties
12
Pure Substances
  • Compounds are composed of two or more elements
    chemically combined

NaCl
13
Pure Substances
  • Compounds can be broken down by chemical methods
  • When they are broken down, the pieces have
    completely different properties than the
    compound.

Cl2
NaCl
Na
14
Mixtures
  • Made up of two or more substances.
  • Variable composition.
  • Heterogeneous- mixture is not the same from place
    to place.
  • Mixed nuts, Chocolate chip cookie, Salad

15
Mixtures
  • Homogeneous- uniform composition (1 phase)
  • Kool-aid (solutions), air (gases), compounds
  • Every part keeps its properties

16
Solutions
  • Physically blended together
  • Can occur between any state of matter.
  • Solid in liquid- Kool-aid
  • Liquid in liquid- antifreeze
  • Gas in gas- air
  • Solid in solid - brass
  • Liquid in gas- water vapor

17
Compound or Mixture
Compound
Mixture
Two or more different Atoms
More than one kind - Compound, Molecule or
atoms
Made by being chemically bonded or by a chemical
change
Made through a physical change or physically
blended
Homogeneous composition
Variable composition
18
Compound vs Mixture
19
Atom, Element, Compound, or Mixture
20
Which is it?
21
Matter
22
Separating Mixtures
  • Only a physical change- no new matter is formed
  • Chromatography- separate homogeneous mixtures
    using a solvent

23
Separating Mixtures
  • Filtration- separates heterogeneous mixtures of
    solids and liquids

24
Separating Mixtures
  • Distillation- separates homogeneous mixtures due
    to different boiling points

25
Separating Mixtures Solutions
  • Can be separated by physical means
  • Not easily separated- can be separated without
    creating anything new.

NaCl (aq)
If you heat the solution, the water evaporates
and the salt is left behind
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