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Fish Out of Water?

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Fish Out of Water? Inter-sectoral Conflicts, Trade-offs and Synergies in Freshwater Resource and Coastal Zone Management * * Competition and Interactions Fisheries ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fish Out of Water?


1
  • Fish Out of Water?
  • Inter-sectoral Conflicts,
  • Trade-offs and Synergies in Freshwater
  • Resource and Coastal Zone Management

2
Competition and Interactions
  • Fisheries and aquaculture compete for space and
    resources in the most contested and
    fastest-developing geographical areas on earth
    coastal zones and river basins
  • Coastal zones and river basins provide globally
    significant environmental goods and services
  • While many of the interactions within the
    fisheries sector and between the sector and other
    activities are of a competitive or antagonistic
    nature, a number of complementary or synergistic
    interactions may also exist

3
Freshwater Resources
  • Inland fish production will continue to face
    increasing competition for water from other uses
  • Integration is required in order to facilitate
    sustainable inland fish production
  • Use allocation will require close liaison between
    user groups, transparency in the decision-making
    process, cross-sector education
  • An important focus is the evaluation and
    management of trade-offs associated with
    infrastructure development

1/15/2016
3
4
Freshwater Resources
  • Inland fisheries are greatly undervalued in water
    management decisions
  • Better valuation methods that pay more attention
    to non-formal values, particularly those
    concerning livelihoods, biodiversity and food
    security are urgently needed
  • The ecosystem approach, with its focus on
    maintaining ecosystem functioning, is fundamental
    to managing water for inland fisheries and
    aquaculture

1/15/2016
4
5
Freshwater Resources
  • Hydrological approaches to water management tend
    to focus on in-stream quantitative flows and
    often ignore the important impacts on quality and
    extent of adjacent floodplains and their
    associated wetlands
  • Fisheries and aquaculture can play an important
    role in effective water management across the
    continuum from rain fed to irrigated agriculture,
    and increase the resilience of poor communities

1/15/2016
5
6
Coastal Resources
  • The livelihood of residents in coastal areas is
    usually directly linked to coastal resource use
  • The environments of coastal zones are influenced
    not only by human activity along the coastline
    and in adjoining seas, but also by activities
    inland and in associated watersheds
  • These issues are often complex and cross sectoral
    boundaries
  • They are difficult to resolve in a single-sector
    management regime.

1/15/2016
6
7
Coastal Resources
  • Fisheries and aquaculture must be conceived as
    part of wider local, regional and national
    (scale) economic development and resource
    management strategies (nested)
  • The entire process is closely linked to the
    institutional and organizational context in which
    the fisheries and aquaculture sector operates
  • A major challenge is to modify the existing
    context in order to achieve preferred patterns of
    coastal resource use.

1/15/2016
7
8
Coastal Resources
  • Marine protected areas (MPAs) can be considered
    components of ICM programs because they protect
    the biodiversity and ecological processes
  • MPAs have come to be advocated as the solution
    for all fisheries and ecosystem management
    problems
  • MPA management must be coordinated and integrated
    with coastal and fisheries management activities
    outside the boundaries and linked to development
    programs that address the needs of local people

1/15/2016
8
9
Governance, Decisions and Trade-Offs
  • Improved governance processes are needed that
    facilitate compromise by stakeholders and favor
    integrated resource management
  • New institutional arrangements are needed to link
    decisions on upstream uses and resource
    management to those for managing downstream uses
    (integrated aquatic resource management)
  • Decentralization reforms to local levels
  • Clearly defined goals and responsibilities to
    address issues at different scales

1/15/2016
9
10
Principles for Investment
  • Support institutional and governance reforms that
    link decision-making across sectors and across
    multiple scales of intervention
  • Integrate an ecosystem-based approach into
    infrastructure planning
  • Adopt multi-criteria analysis for water
    allocation and use environmental flow assessment
    as a way to quantify the environmental criteria

1/15/2016
10
11
Principles for Investment
  • Strengthen watershed and coastal zone management
    bodies with strong civil society representation
  • Invest in local capacity to assess and weigh the
    livelihood implications of alternative resource
    management scenarios

1/15/2016
11
12
Implementing the Principles
  • Investing in integrated aquatic resource
    management
  • Xiamen, China
  • Batangas Bay, Philippines
  • Tanzania

1/15/2016
12
13
Implementing the Principles
  • Xiamen, China

1/15/2016
13
14
Implementing the Principles
  • Xiamen, China
  • As a consequence of industrialization and
    urbanization increased population growth uses
    of coastal and marine resources diversified and
    intensified resulting in severe space
    competition, resource-use conflicts, and
    pollution.
  • weak institutional capability
  • lack of integrated planning and coordination
  • inadequate legislation for effective resolution
    of multiple resource-use conflicts
  • poor law enforcement
  • weak marine environmental consciousness

1/15/2016
14
15
Implementing the Principles
  • Xiamen, China
  • Lead Xiamen Municipal Government with PEMSEA
    (GEF, UNDP) 1994-2008
  • Investment demonstrate the application of
    integrated coastal management (ICM) for effective
    prevention, control and mitigation of marine
    pollution
  • Executive Committee involving over 20 government
    agencies
  • Institutional mechanism for interagency
    consultation, coordination and review
  • A shared vision and commitment for change

1/15/2016
15
16
Implementing the Principles
  • Xiamen, China
  • Strategic environmental management plans
  • Marine Management and Coordination Committee
  • Integrated law enforcement legislation
  • Sea-use zoning
  • Citizen participation and awareness building
  • Marine Pollution Monitoring Program

1/15/2016
16
17
Implementing the Principles
  • Tanzania
  • Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership
  • National Environmental Management Council and
    URI-CRC (USAID) 1997-ongoing
  • Investment improve the well being of coastal
    residents and their environment through the
    implementation and strengthening of the Tanzania
    National Coastal Strategy 2002

1/15/2016
17
18
Implementing the Principles
  • Tanzania
  • Decentralization to districts for implementation
  • District ICM action plan integrated with
    collaborative fisheries management plan
  • Human and institutional capacity development
  • Mariculture and tourism guidelines
  • Broad participation of stakeholder
  • Establishment of MPAs

1/15/2016
18
19
Implementing the Principles
  • Batangas Bay, Philippines

1/15/2016
19
20
Implementing the Principles
  • Batangas Bay, Philippines
  • Industrial center and shipping hub
  • Inadequate and fragmented environmental and
    natural resource-use policies, plans and programs
  • Lack of legal and institutional mechanisms for
    integrated management
  • Limited knowledge and capability of local
    stakeholders on integrated environmental
    management

1/15/2016
20
21
Implementing the Principles
  • Batangas Bay, Philippines
  • PEMSEA (GEF, UNDP) 1994-2004
  • Investment demonstrate the application of
    integrated coastal management (ICM) for
    environmental protection
  • Batangas Integrated Environmental Protection
    Council
  • Private-public partnership
  • Strategic management plan

1/15/2016
21
22
Implementing the Principles
  • Batangas Bay, Philippines
  • Sustainable cost sharing mechanism with private
    sector
  • Sea use zoning
  • Public awareness and participation
  • Improvements in environmental quality and
    institutional coordination for management

1/15/2016
22
23
Scaling up
  • Investment opportunities in integrated aquatic
    resources management
  • Build interagency, intersectoral, and
    intergovernmental partnerships for sustainable
    development
  • Balance conservation and economic development
  • Strengthen technical and institutional capacities
  • Improved water and coastal resource allocation
  • Fuller participation of stakeholders

1/15/2016
23
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