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Chapter 13: Leadership


Chapter 13: Leadership PSYC 352 Overview Leadership vs. management Major topics in leadership Theoretical approaches to leadership Points of convergence among ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 13: Leadership

Chapter 13 Leadership
  • PSYC 352

  • Leadership vs. management
  • Major topics in leadership
  • Theoretical approaches to leadership
  • Points of convergence among approaches
  • Cross-cultural leadership issues
  • Diversity issues in leadership
  • Concluding comments

Leadership vs. Management
  • Mintzberg (1973) stated that leadership was
    merely a form or subset of management.
  • Minzberg also suggested that managers had the
    following roles or functions
  • Figurehead
  • Negotiator
  • Liaison
  • Monitor
  • Disseminator
  • Spokesman
  • Entrepreneur
  • Distribution handler
  • Resource allocator

Leadership vs. Management
  • Other researchers (Bennis Nanus, 1985) suggest
    that there are differences between leaders and
  • To manage means to bring about, to accomplish,
    to have charge of or responsibility for, to
  • Leading is influencing, guiding in direction,
    course, action, opinion.
  • Leaders are people who do the right thing.

Major Topics in Leadership
  • Positional power higher position more power
  • The leader characteristics of leaders
  • The led characteristics of followers
  • The influence process coercion, manipulation,
    authority, persuasion
  • Types of leader behavior instrumental,
  • The situation characteristics of situation
  • Leader emergence versus leader effectiveness
    how do leaders emerge, why are they effective?

Theoretical Approaches to Leadership
  1. The trait approach
  2. The behavioral approach
  3. The power and influence approach
  4. The situational approach
  5. Transformational leadership
  6. Charismatic leadership
  7. The implicit leadership theory
  8. Substitutes for leadership

1. The Trait Approach
Thomas Carlyle (1907) commented thatthe history
of the world was the biography of great men
  • Focuses on
  • Personal attributes high energy level, tolerance
    for stress, emotional maturity, integrity,
  • Motivation need for power, achievement,
  • Skills technical, conceptual, interpersonal

2. The Behavioral Approach
  • Emphasizes what leaders actually do on the job.
  • 2 lines of research
  • Classification of leadership behaviors into
  • Identification of behaviors related to leadership

2. The Behavioral Approach How to Classify
  • Ohio State researchers (1950)
  • Initiating structure (task-oriented)
  • Consideration (people-oriented)
  • Yukl, Wall, and Lepsinger (1990)
  • 11 generic categories of leadership behavior
  • Networking
  • Supporting
  • Managing conflict and team building
  • Motivating
  • Recognizing and rewarding
  • Planning and organizing
  • Problem solving
  • Consulting and delegating
  • Monitoring
  • Informing
  • Clarifying

3. Power and Influence Approach
  • Emphasizes the use of power and influence
    exercised by a person within a group
  • 3 major topics
  • Power and leader effectiveness
  • LMX theory
  • Influence tactics

3. Power and Influence Power and Leader
  • 5 types of power (French Raven, 1960)
  • Reward
  • Coercive
  • Legitimate
  • Expert
  • Referent
  • 3 outcomes of power
  • Commitment
  • Compliance
  • Resistance
  • Empirical research

3. Power and Influence Leader-Member Exchange
  • Emphasizes the nature of the relationship between
    a leader and her/his subordinates
  • Leaders differentiate subordinates by
  • Competence and skill
  • Extent to which they can be trusted
  • Motivation to assume greater responsibility

3. Power and Influence Leader-Member Exchange
  • Leaders develop relationships with each member of
    their work group (dyads)
  • High quality relationships member of in-group
    greater responsibility, satisfaction
  • Low quality relationships member of out-group
    less responsibility, satisfaction
  • Psychological bases for exchange
  • Personal contribution
  • Loyalty
  • Affect
  • Professional respect

3. Power and Influence Influence Tactics
  • 9 influencing tactics
  • Rational persuasion
  • Inspirational appeals
  • Consultation
  • Ingratiation
  • Personal appeals
  • Exchange
  • Coalition tactics
  • Legitimating tactics
  • Pressure
  • Empirical research results

4. Situational Approach
  • Emphasizes situational factors (e.g., nature of
    work performed, attitudes of subordinates) that
    promote the occurrence of leadership
  • Path-goal theory emphasizes the importance of
    telling followers what behaviors are needed in
    order to attain desired outcomes (House, 1971)

4. Situational Approach Path-Goal Theory
  • Leader must manifest 4 styles of behavior
  • Directive
  • Supportive
  • Participative
  • Achievement oriented
  • Leaders can influence subordinates perceptions
    of jobs by
  • Removing obstacles from path to desired goal
  • Rewarding goal attainment
  • Helping clarify paths to goals
  • Conceptual limitations of theory

5. Transformational Leadership
  • Leadership is the process of inspiring a group to
    pursue goals and attain results.
  • 4 components
  • Idealized influence
  • Inspirational motivation
  • Intellectual stimulation
  • Individualized consideration
  • Transformational leadership is strongly related
    to work unit effectiveness especially idealized
    influence (Lowe, Kroeck, Sivasubramaniam, 1996)

6. Charismatic Leadership
  • Follower perception that a leader possesses a
    divinely inspired gift (charisma) and is unique
    and larger than life, which inspires confidence
    and support (in followers) for the ideas and
    beliefs of the leader
  • Behaviors typical of charismatic leaders
  • Impression management
  • Articulation of appealing vision
  • Communication of high expectations
  • Expression of confidence
  • Negative charismatics

7. Implicit Leadership Theory
  • Leadership exists only in the mind of the
  • Individuals have an idea of what a leader should
    look like they evaluate actual leaders based on
    this idea (Lord, Foti, Phillips, 1982).
  • Problems with measurement

8. Substitutes for Leadership
  • Idea that there are other influences that can act
    in place of, or substitute for, formal leadership
  • Four environmental sources that provide structure
    and direction (Pierce et al., 1984)
  • The job itself
  • Technology
  • Work unit
  • Leader

Points of Convergence among Approaches
  • Importance of influencing and motivating
  • Importance of maintaining effective relationships
  • Importance of making decisions

Cross-Cultural Leadership Issues
  • Japanese vs. American managers (Graen
    Wakabayashi, 1994)
  • Language differences
  • Japanese perception that Americans have
    underdeveloped sense of obligation to company
  • Americans do not understand Japanese tendency to
    not use punishment for insubordination
  • Americans see lack of perks as loss of status
  • Americans do not spend entire career in one
  • There is not a single conceptualization of

Diversity Issues in Leadership
  • Most research is based on white men
  • Reasons for gender differences in leadership
  • Cultural
  • Biases
  • Gender differences in evaluation
  • Tendency for women to be evaluated lower
  • More so when when their leadership style was
    stereotypically masculine
  • More so when evaluators were women
  • Women experience more barriers in leadership
    (Lyness Thompson, 2000)

  • New trends in leadership
  • Managing a diverse workforce
  • Leaders are not only heroes, but hero makers