Life on Earth: Vertebrate Animals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Life on Earth: Vertebrate Animals PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 73064f-MmQwY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Life on Earth: Vertebrate Animals

Description:

* Insight Learning an animal applies something it has already learned to a new situation. Ex: Knowing how to multiply can be used in math class, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:45
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 28
Provided by: Loi123
Learn more at: http://images.pcmac.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Life on Earth: Vertebrate Animals


1
Life on Earth Vertebrate Animals
2
Kingdom Animalia
  • Phylum Chordata
  • Subphylum Vertebrata
  • Class Osteichthyes
  • Class Chondrichthyes
  • Class Amphibia
  • Class Reptilia
  • Class Aves
  • Class Mammalia

3
Osteichthyes
  • Bony fish trout, flounder, goldfish
  • Feeding herbivores, carnivores, parasites,
    filter feeders, detritus feeders
  • Respiration gills, some modified swim bladders
  • Internal Transport closed circulatory system,
    2-chambered heart

4
  • Excretion kidneys filter nitrogenous wastes,
    ammonia diffuses through gills, solid wastes
    anus
  • Response brain and nervous system,
    biolumenescence, electricity possible
  • Movement swim, some walk on fins
  • Reproduction sexual, oviparous (lay eggs),
    external fertilization, live-bearing, some
    internal fertilization

5
Walking Catfish
6
Chondrichthyes
  • Cartilaginous fish sharks, rays and skates
  • Same as other fish EXCEPT
  • Skeleton is made of cartilage whereas
    Osteichthyes have skeletons of bone

7
Amphibians
  • Examples frogs, toads, salamanders
  • Feeding young are filter feeding herbivores,
    adults are carnivores
  • Respiration young have gills. Adults have lungs,
    some diffusion through skin
  • Internal Transport closed, double-loop system,
    3-chambered heart

8
  • Excretion Kidneys produce urine intestines
    produce solid wastes, both excreted via the
    cloaca
  • Response brain and nervous system, ectotherms (
    cold-blooded)
  • Movement swim, hop, crawl
  • Reproduction sexual, external or internal
    fertilization

9
Reptiles
  • Examples snakes, lizards, turtles, alligators,
    crocodiles
  • Feeding herbivores or carnivores
  • Respiration lungs
  • Internal transport closed, double loop system, 3
    or 4 chambered heart

10
  • Excretion kidneys may produce uric acid which
    along with solids, are eliminated through a
    cloaca
  • Response well-developed brain and nervous
    system, heat-sensitive, ectotherms
  • Movement stronger limbs and muscles, situated
    directly under the body walking, swimming,
    burrowing, climbing

11
  • Reproduction sexual, usually internal
    fertilization, lay eggs or bear live young
  • Major evolutionary development the amniote egg

12
Aves
  • Examples hawks, sparrows, penguins, ducks
  • Feeding herbivores, carnivores or omnivores
  • Respiration lungs plus air sacs in body cavity
    and bones
  • Internal Transport closed double loop system,
    4-chambered heart

13
  • Excretion Kidneys produce uric acid
  • Response Brain, good senses, magnetic senses for
    migration, endotherms (warm-blooded)
  • Movement fly, swim, walk
  • Reproduction sexual, internal fertilization, lay
    eggs

14
Mammals
  • Examples apes, humans, kangaroos
  • Feeding herbivores, carnivores, omnivores
  • Respiration lungs
  • Internal Transport closed, double-loop, 4
    chambered heart

15
  • Excretion Kidneys most well-developed, produce
    urine
  • Response most highly developed brain and nervous
    system, 3 part brain
  • Movement walk, swim, fly
  • Reproduction sexual, internal fertilization,
    egg-laying, live bearing

16
Mammal orders
  • Monotremes duckbill platypus
  • Marsupials kangaroo, opossum
  • Insectivora anteaters
  • Chiroptera bats
  • Rodentia rats, mice
  • Lagomorpha rabbits
  • Carnivora lions, dogs
  • Cetacea whales and dolphins
  • Primates apes and man

17
Hominid Evolution
  • Hominid human-like creatures, omnivores,
    bipedal, opposable thumb, larger brain capacity
  • Several theories of evolution
  • Missing link still missing
  • Earliest hominid Ardipithecus ramidus
  • 4.5 million years old

18
  • Australopithecus afarensis Lucy
  • 3.5 million years old
  • A. africanis
  • A. bosei and A. robustus (extinct lines)
  • Homo habilis
  • Homo erectus
  • Homo sapien
  • About 500, 000 years ago

19
Homo sapien subspecies
  • Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
  • Neanderthals
  • Homo sapiens sapiens
  • Modern humans
  • About 100, 000 years ago
  • May have begun as Cro-Magnons

20
Classification of Man
  • Kingdom - Animalia
  • Phylum Chordata
  • Subphylum Vertebrata
  • Class Mammalia
  • Order Primates
  • Family Hominidae
  • Genus Homo
  • Species sapiens
  • Subspecies sapiens

21
Animal Behavior
  • The behavior of an animal is just as important
    to its survival and reproduction as any of its
    physical characteristics. For that reason,
    animal behaviors have evolved in many different
    ways, just as animal physical characteristics
    have.
  • (Miller and Levine,p. 771)

22
Instincts
  • built-in behaviors which cannot be changed
    during the animals lifetime.
  • Are genetically determined
  • Examples suckling behavior of infants,
    web-building behavior in spiders

23
Learning
  • The way animals change their behavior as a result
    of experience.
  • Helps an animal survive and reproduce

24
Ways of learning
  • Habituation a decrease in response to a
    stimulus. Ex an alarm clock
  • Classical Conditioning when an animal makes a
    mental connection between a stimulus and a good
    or bad event. Ex Pavlovs dogs
  • Operant Conditioning trial and error learning.
    Ex learning to play a sport or a musical
    instrument.

25
  • Insight Learning an animal applies something it
    has already learned to a new situation. Ex
    Knowing how to multiply can be used in math
    class, other classes and other situations.

26
Imprinting
  • A learned behavior based on some instinctive
    behavior.
  • Ex Geese think their adult keeper is their
    mother and follow that person.

27
Communication signals
  • Visual mating behaviors
  • Sound bird calls
  • Chemical - pheromones
  • Electrical some fish
  • Language
About PowerShow.com