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ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND HUMAN SECURITY: THE ROLE OF CLIMATE CHANGE

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ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND HUMAN SECURITY: THE ROLE OF CLIMATE CHANGE Nay Htun, PhD, FIC.* Professor of Environmental Sustainability, Stony Brook Southampton, – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND HUMAN SECURITY: THE ROLE OF CLIMATE CHANGE


1
ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND HUMAN SECURITY
THE ROLE OF CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Nay Htun, PhD, FIC.
  • Professor of Environmental Sustainability,
  • Stony Brook Southampton,
  • State University of New York
  • Extramural Lecture, AIT
  • 27 May 2008.
  • Fellow and Visiting Professor Imperial College
    London
  • Visiting Professor and Sr. Advisor Lund
    University, Sweden (Former UN Asst. Sec-General
    UNEP, UNDP)

2
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3
ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITYTHE CRITICAL
BUILDING BLOCKS
  • ATMOSPHERE composition, temperature, physical
    state
  • HYDROSPHERE composition, precipitation, quantity
    constant, accessibility, rivers, lakes, oceans,
    coastal zones, hydro-cycle
  • GEOSPHERE-BIOSPHERE, LITHOSPHERE weathering of
    geosphere to form soils, provides terrestrial
    plants with a firm substrate and vital nutrients
    and minerals needed for plant growth.
  • LINKGAGES AND INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SPHERES WHICH
    NURTURE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS.

4
2007 IPCC REPORT
5
2007 IPCC REPORT

6
2007 IPCC REPORT
7
ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY UNDER INCREASING
PRESSURES
  • ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES DISCHARGING AND EMITTING
    INCREASING QUANTITIES OF WASTES, POLLUTANTS EG.
    GHGs, OZONE LAYER DEPLETING SUBSTANCES,
    PERSISTENT ORGANIC, (POPs), HEAVY METALS
  • NATURAL DISASTERS exacerbated by
    anthropogenic activities. Hydro-meteorological,
    geological and biological disasters increased
    from 71(1900-1909) to 2711 (1990-1999) 396 in
    2006
  • INCREASING ENVIRONMENTAL REFUGEES, MORE PRESSURE
    ON ENVIRONMENT, ECONOMIC AND HUMAN SYSTEMS
  • CONSEQUENCES FOR HUMAN HEALTH AND WELL BEING
  • UN International Decade for Disaster
    Reduction (IDNDR)

8
EMERGING CONCERNS WITH ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEM
AND CLIMATE CHANGES
  • PERMAFROST AND GREENLAND MELTING
  • GLACIERS MELTING AND LAKES BURSTING
  • ATMOSPHERIC BROWN CLOUD HOVERING OVER CONTINENTS
  • GLOBAL WARMING
  • SEA LEVEL RISING
  • HUMIDITY INCREASING
  • MORE FAVOURABLE FOR INSECT, BACTERIA, VIRUS,
    MOLD, FUNGUS
  • BALLAST WATER DISCHARGE
  • ALIEN INVASIVE SPECIES INCREASING

9
SOME LINKED CONVERGING IMPLICATIONS
  • FOOD SECURITY
  • WATER STRESS
  • WATER QUALITY
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES
  • ALLERGY
  • RESPIRATORY ILLNESS
  • NEW DISEASES
  • ZOONOSES
  • DISASTERS

10
DISEASES FOOD SECURITY
  • SOME EXAMPLES
  • COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER honey bees affecting US
    14 billion per year of US agriculture, attributed
    to pesticides, mites, fungus, virus and
    environmental changes.
  • PACIFIC SALMON heavy losses and extinction in
    Western Canada and US, caused by sea lice
    breeding on farmed salmon.
  • FROG POPULATIONS severely affected , extinct, due
    to increase of chytrid disease caused by fungus
    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

11
DESTRUCTIONS AND DISASTERS
  • INFRASTRUCTURES
  • HUMAN SETTLEMENTS
  • ECOSYSTEMS
  • Atmosphere, land, forests, rivers, lakes,
    coastal zones, biodiversity
  • ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
  • SOCIAL AND CULTURAL PATRIMONY

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13
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
  • GROUP OF EIGHT SUMMIT, ST. PETERSBURG 06
  • A VIGOROUS RESPONSE TO THE THREAT OF
    INFECTIOUS DISEASES, THE LEADING CAUSE OF DEATHS
    WORLD WIDE, IS ESSENTIAL TO GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT
    AND TO THE WELL-BEING OF THE WORLDS POPULATION.
    MAJOR DISEASES SUCH AS HIV / AIDS, TUBERCLOSIS,
    MALARIA AND MEASELS CONTINUE TO EXACT A HEAVY
    TOLL ON ECONOMIES AND SOCIETIES AROUND THE WORLD,
    PARTICULARLY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, IMPEDING
    ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
  • CLEAN WATER, SANITATION, EMERGENCE OF HIGHLY
    PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA WITH THE ACCOMPANYING
    POSSIBILITY OF HUMAN PANDEMIC, DEMANDS OUR
    IMMEDIATE ATTENTION

14
WHO 2006 REPORTS
  • 24 of global disease burdens and 23 of all
    deaths can be attributed to environmental
    factors. Of the 102 major diseases ---
    environmental risk factors contributed to disease
    burdens in 85 categories
  • Children 0 14 yrs. of age, the proportion of
    deaths attributed to the environment was as high
    as 36

15
EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT AGENCY
  • EUROPES ENVIRONMENT --- THE FOURTH ASSESSMENT
    OCT 2007
  • Despite some success with air pollution, current
    levels mainly nitrogen oxide, fine particles and
    ground level ozone are estimated to shorten
    average life expectancy in Western and Central
    European countries by almost one year and
    threaten the health development of children. In
    Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, the
    situation is assumed to be similarly bleak
  • (53 Countries, total population 870 million)

16
IPCC FOURTH ASSESSMENT REPORT 2007
  • More endemic morbidity and mortality due to
    increase in vector borne diseases , primarily
    from floods and droughts.
  • Increase cholera incidence with increasing water
    temperatures
  • Increased risks of infectious, respiratory and
    skin diseases
  • Migration and disasters related health effects

17
MALARIA
  • Yearly one million deaths and 500 million become
    severely ill
  • Warming effects and extreme weather events would
    precipitate large outbreaks
  • Increase range of mosquitoes which spread malaria

18
WEST NILE
  • Affects humans, horses and over 130 species of
    birds
  • Warm weather and droughts play role in amplifying

19
DENGUE
  • Current outbreak in Asia Pacific attributed to
    climate change and global warming

20
ASTHMA
  • In US prevalence has quadrupled since 1980
  • New drivers include increased levels of CO2,
    which increases plant pollens, soil fungi, fine
    particles, micro-organisms

21
INCREASING AWARENESS CONCERNS WITH CONVERGENCE
OF ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY AND HUMAN SECURITY
  • SOME RECENT EXAMPLES
  • April 2007 New York Times Editorial Warming and
    Global Security
  • April 2007 CNA Corporation, a US national
    security think tank released report by 11 retired
    Admirals and Generals who argued that climate
    change is a threat multiplier
  • January 2007 UN Security Council first ever
    debate on climate change. UKs former Foreign
    Secretary Margaret Beckett said What makes war
    start? Fights over water, changing patterns of
    rainfall and warned that global warming not
    limited to adverse environmental effects, and the
    global population would be wise to consider
    consequences people have not been thinking about

22
RESPONSE OPTIONS ?
  • NEW PARADIGM
  • Normative means
  • Economic Instruments
  • Technologies
  • Education, training, information
  • Institutions
  • Governance
  • TOWARDS

TRANSFORMATIONAL CHANGES IMPERATIVE
23
PARADIGM CHANGE
  • CONSUMPTION PATTERNS, e.g.
  • Energy, water, carbon material footprint
    reduction, low carbon economy.
  • PRODUCTION SYSTEMS e.g.
  • Zero emissions
  • Biomimetics
  • Nano materials and applications

24
PARADIGM CHANGE
  • ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS Subsidies,
    taxes, loans, financing mechanisms, cap and
    trade, CDM, etc
  • NORMATIVE MEANS
  • INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEMS
  • Governance
  • Administration
  • Education

25
PARADIGM CHANGE---Human Behavior---
  • THINK ACT OUTSIDE-BOX
  • CARING, SHARING, RESPECT, HARMONY, PEACE
  • Nature
  • Neighbors
  • Ourselves

26
GREENING REVOLUTION
  • A FUTURE THAT IS
  • CLEAN
  • SAFE
  • SECURE
  • SUSTAINED
  • ENVIRONMENTAL
    SUSTAINABILITY
  • HUMAN SECURITY
  • FREEDOM FROM WANT
  • FREEDOM FROM FEAR
  • FREEDOM TO CHOOSE
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