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Commercial Ground School September 9, 1999

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Ground School Stage 1 Module 4 Flight Physiology Am I fit to Fly I - illness M- medication S- stress A- alcohol F- fatigue E- emotions Mental attitudes Antiauthority ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Commercial Ground School September 9, 1999


1
Commercial Pilot Ground School
Stage 1 Module 4 Flight Physiology
2
Am I fit to Fly
  • I - illness
  • M- medication
  • S- stress
  • A- alcohol
  • F- fatigue
  • E- emotions

3
Mental attitudes
  • Antiauthority - against advice.
  • Follow the rules they are usually right
  • Impulsivity - dont think before they do
    something.
  • Not so fast. Think first.
  • Invulnerability - it wont happen to me.
  • It could happen to me.
  • Macho - Person with something to prove.
  • Taking Chances is foolish
  • Resignation - person who gives up.
  • Im not helpless. I can make a difference.

4
DECIDE MODEL
  • Detect
  • Estimate
  • Choose
  • Identify
  • Do
  • Evaluate

EVALUATE Evaluate the effect of the action on the
change and on progress of the flight.
DETECT Detect the fact that a change has occurred
that requires attention.
ESTIMATE Estimate the significance of the change
to the flight.
CHOOSE Choose a safe outcome for the flight.
IDENTIFY Identify plausible actions and their
risks to control the change.
DO Do the best option.
5
Medication Reactions
  • Unique reaction based on your biological make-up.
  • Never fly after taking medication that you have
    not taken before (you dont know how it will
    affect you)
  • Common reactions
  • Side effects list available on the label or in
    the packaging.
  • Condition being treated
  • What if the medication wears off before the end
    of the flight.

6
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7
Blocked ears
  • Upper Respiratory Tract Problems
  • Valsalva technique. Others that will help are
    chewing, swallowing or yawning.
  • Blockage can be very painful and could even cause
    permanent damage.

8
Alcohol and Fatigue
  • 8 hours from bottle to throttle or under the
    influence.
  • High altitudes worsen the affects.
  • Fatigue can be solved very easily
  • SLEEP and REST
  • Blood Donation - it is recommended that pilots
    not give blood before a flight.

9
Respiration
  • Hypoxia - lack of oxygen.
  • The blood does not or cannot carry enough oxygen.
  • Atmosphere consists of 21 oxygen and 78
    nitrogen and the rest is other inert gases, this
    ratio extends up to 70,000 feet.
  • Oxygen requirements?

10
TUC Table
11
Other factors
  • Hyperventilation
  • Usually results in an increase in breathing rate.
  • It is caused by a lack of carbon dioxide.
  • This can be solved by either slowing the
    breathing rate or by breathing into a paper bag.
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
  • A type of hypoxia that comes from engine exhaust.

12
Diving
  • Decompression sickness
  • also known as the bends
  • nitrogen bubbles out of the blood (very painful).
  • 12 Hours up to 8000 feet
  • 24 Hours if controlled accent happened
  • More than 24 hours if going over 8K

13
Balance
  • Vision goes along with balance, if your eyes were
    not telling you that you were moving forward,
    your body would not feel it unless you
    accelerated in any direction.
  • Your body senses movement through muscular
    sensations and most importantly, the inner ear
    balance mechanism.

14
Inner Ear - Balance
  • The inner ear consists of three semicircular
    canals containing fluid and small sensory hairs
    to detect movement in three planes (pitch, roll,
    yaw).

15
Inner Ear - Balance
  • Motion Sickness
  • disagreement exists between visually perceived
    movement and the vestibular systems sense of
    movement
  • Vertigo (spatial disorientation) - No visual
    reference to what is up and down so your inner
    ear will make up where up and down is.
  • TRUST YOUR INSTRUMENTS

16
Vision
  • The eye is made up of
  • Cones- concentrated around the central section of
    the retina, cones sense color, light, small
    details, very useful at day.
  • Rods concentrated outside central area,
    sensitive to movement and black, white and gray,
    very useful at night and use of peripheral vision.

17
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18
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19
Scanning
  • 10 degrees
  • focus
  • Night Scanning

20
Runway Illusions
  • Up sloping runway
  • Appearance of being too high
  • Down sloping runway (smaller image to the eyes)
  • Appearance of being to low
  • Wide Vs Narrow
  • Night flight and lights along the runway
  • Featureless terrain
  • Atmospheric illusions
  • Rain on the windshield feeling that you are
    higher than you are (due to refraction of light)
  • Fog (feel like you are pitching up)

21
False Horizon
22
Runway Illusions
23
Illusions
  • Autokinesis
  • Somatogravic illusion (Accelerate nose up)
  • The leans ( sense of banking in opposite
    direction)
  • Coriolis (head movement)
  • False horizon

24
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