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The Two-Han Period 206 BCE

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Title: The Two-Han Period 206 BCE


1
The Two-Han Period 206 BCE220 CE (about 400
years)
  • the Western or Former Han (206 B.C.9 A.D.) ??/??
  • The Western Han capital, Chang'an in present-day
    Shaanxi Provincea monumental urban center laid
    out on a north-south axis with palaces,
    residential areas, and two bustling market
    areaswas one of the two largest cities in the
    ancient world (Rome being the other). (49)
  • the Eastern or Later Han (25220 A.D.) ??/??
  • City of Luoyang
  • Two-capital system

2
Big Five Dynasties Over 250 years
  • ???guózuò? blessing the throne.
  • Destiny of a nation
  • Han-206 BCE 220 CE
  • Tang-618907
  • Song-960 and 1279
  • Ming-1368 to 1644
  • Qing-1644 to 1912

3
???? 206 BC202 BC ChuHan Contention (Ebrey
49) ???liúbang? the first emperor of Han Dynasty
(206 BC - AD 220)
  • Liu Bangs reign
  • 202 BC-195 BC
  • A minor official under the Qin rule, Liu Bang was
    escorting some convicts or prisoners assigned to
    Mount Li to build the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang.
    Overnight, some prisoners escaped. Liu assembled
    his remaining prisoners, telling them he would
    free them if they followed himThen he became a
    rebel against the Qin Rule.

4
The Tragedy of Xiang Yu "Hegemon-King of Western
Chu"
  • Xiang Yu boasted 400,000 troops
  • The tragedy of Xiang Yu lies in that as someone
    whose talents are to be used or utilized by
    others, Xiang Yu accidently sits on the hot seat
    to employ others
  • Wang Liqun ???
  • Chinese professor at Henan University

5
Banquet at Hongmen (206 BCE) Read The Basic
Annals of Xiang Yu online
  • After his victory in the Battle of Julu which
    wiped out the main Qin army (207 BC), Xiang Yu
    prepared for an invasion on Guanzhong??, the
    heartland of China. In the winter of 207 BC, the
    last (3rd) Qin ruler Ziying ?? (on the throne for
    46 days) surrendered to Liu Bang's army in
    Xianyang ??. When Xiang Yu arrived at Hangu Pass,
    the eastern gateway to Guanzhong, he saw that the
    pass was occupied by Liu Bang's troops, a sign
    that Guanzhong was already under Liu's control.
  • Liu's left general Cao Wushang ??? sent a
    messenger to see Xiang Yu, reporting that Liu
    Bang would become King of Guanzhong, with Ziying
    appointed as Liu's Prime Minister. (CR8_80-86)

6
What makes Xiang Yu? What breaks Xiang Yu?
  • Mao Kun ?? in the Ming dynasty remarks, while the
    Battle of Julu (207 BCE) marks the most glorious
    moment in Xiang Yus life it actually became the
    most glorious chapter for the Governor of Pei
    (Jiangxu province).
  • The agreement between Xiang Yu and Liu Bang being
    that whoever conquered Xianyang ??, capital of
    Qin, first will be the king

7
?????pòfuchénzhou? break the cauldrons and sink
the boats (after crossing)
  • ???? ????? ?,??????,???,?????
  • The Art of War
  • 11.39 He burns his boats and breaks his cooking
    pots like a shepherd driving a flock of sheep,
    he drives his men this way and that, and none
    knows wither he is going.
  • Page 52-53
  • After crossing River Zhang, Xiang Yu asked his
    soldiers to break all their cooking pots and burn
    all their boats, with each carrying only three
    days rations/food, thus leaving his troops with
    no options but fight to death
  • As a result, the Chu army wiped the main Qin army
    (207 BCE).

8
???? ???? CR8-83 ?xiàngzhuangwujiànyìzàipèigong?
  • Xiang Zhuang performed the sword dance as a
    cover-up for his attempt on Liu Bang's life - act
    with a hidden motive.
  • The Banquet at Hongmen ???
  • Refers to a dinner party that harbors evil
    designs or malicious intentions
  • Role of Fan Zeng

9
Hongmen Banquet (206 BCE)
10
?????gaixià zhizhàn? The Battle of Gaixia in 202
BCE
  • Oriental Waterloo at Gaixia, He County, Anhui
    Province
  • ???? four sides, Chu songs
  • ?sìmiànchuge? be besieged on all sides be
    utterly isolated.

11
?????bàwángbiéji? Farewell to My Concubine
  • Lady Yu joined her voice with his. Tears streamed
    down his face

12
Song of Gaixia ???
  • My strength plucked up the hills, My might
    shadowed the world
  • But the times were against me, And Dapple runs no
    more
  • When Dapple runs no more, What then can I do?
  • Ah, Yu, my Yu, What will your fate be?
  • ???????,
  • ????????
  • ???????!
  • ???????!

13
?????sìmiànchuge? be besieged on all sides be
utterly isolated
  • In 202 BC, Han armies led by Liu Bang, Han Xin
    and Peng Yue attacked Western Chu from three
    sides and trapped Xiang Yu's army, which was low
    on supplies, in the Battle of Gaixia. Liu ordered
    his troops to sing folk songs from the Chu
    region, to create a false impression that Xiang's
    native land of Chu had been conquered by the Han
    forces. The morale of the Chu army plummeted and
    many of Xiang's troops deserted in despair. Xiang
    sank into a state of depression and he sang the
    famous Song of Gaixia. His beloved concubine
    Consort Yu (??) committed suicide. The next
    morning, Xiang Yu led about 800 of his best
    cavalry troops on a desperate attempt to break
    out of the siege, with 5,000 enemy troops hot on
    pursuit.

14
Potential Problems Embedded in Liu Bangs Rule
  • The western half was ruled by Liu through a
    system of local administration, with officials
    appointed by the emperor
  • In the eastern half, power was held by military
    strongmen who had followed Liu Bang in his
    earlier years
  • Over time, those strongmen began to manifest
    separatist behavior, as in Zhous time.
  • Between 180 to 141 BCE, the emperors wendi and
    jingdi took measures to curtail the power of
    those eastern strongmen

15
The White-Horse Confederation
  • In the ancient times an oath was taken by
    spreading the blood of a white horse on ones
    lips.
  • See Shiji v. 9 on The Basic Annals of the
    Empress Lu
  • Later, with the help of his wife, Liu Bang got
    rid of those founding generals one by one to
    strengthen his rule.
  • Han Xins story stood out as a classical example
  • It is a deal Liu Bang cut with his (7) founding
    generals. Liu Bang made them take an oath that
    only Lius can be kings.
  • In return, Liu Bang enfeoffed them with titles
    equivalent to a duke in a state.
  • In nature, Liu Bang actually adopted the Western
    Zhous system of enfeoffment.

16
Usurpation of the Empress Lu
  • In 180 BCE, the family of the empress, named Lu,
    gained great power at court and almost usurped
    the throne before being suppressed.
  • The empress actually ruled for about 15 years.
  • ?????meirén xinjì? Beauty's calculation
    scheming planning, cunning.
  • No. 1 TV series at http//tv.sohu.com/hotteleplay/

17
In His Old Age, Liu Bang Changed his Mind
  • The Crown Prince Liu Ying
  • The empress asked help from Zhang Liang,
  • Zhang Liang pointed out only the four famous
    hermits at Mt. Shang
  • ????
  • can dramatically change the situation. They did.
  • Ruyi ??, son of Liu Bangs favorite concubine Qi
    Ji ??

18
Four Hermits at Mount Shang
  • ???bóshì? doctor court academician (in feudal
    China).
  • These hermits were court academicians under the
    Qin rule (total 70 PhDs)
  • Tang Bing, Cui Guang, Wu Shi and Zhou Shu
  • Emperor Wu of Han established?????wujingbóshì?
    court academician (in feudal China, comparable
    to PhDs) on the Five Classics (5-14)

19
???rénzhì? ltformalgt pig swine.
  • In 195 BCE, after Liu Bang died, the empress had
    Qi Jis four limbs cut off, her eyes gouged, and
    her ears burned
  • She also made Qi Ji dumb/mute by some drugs. Left
    in a toilet, Qi Ji was moaning and groaning like
    a pig
  • The young emperor Liu Ying could not stand his
    mothers cruelty. He quit ruling.

20
The Han Synthesis 50 Emperor Wu of Han 141 BC -
87 BC (54 years 20 days)
  • the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty, ruled
    from 141 BC to 87 BC.
  • The Han Synthesis pioneered a model that later
    dynasties followed till 1911.

21
Emperor Wu of Han (Ebrey 49-50) Liu Che ??? (r.
141 BC to 87 BC) (54 years 20 days)
  • Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast
    territorial expansion that occurred under his
    reign, as well as the strong and centralized
    Confucian state he organized. He is cited in
    Chinese history as the greatest emperor of the
    Han dynasty and one of the greatest emperors in
    Chinese history. Emperor Wu's effective rule
    transformed his dynasty that parallels Rome.

22
Headache about Xiongnu
  • Dongfang Shuo ???
  • (154-93 BCE)
  • From time to time,
  • ???chányú? chief of the Xiongnu in ancient China,
    demanded the Han give him a wife.
  • The court was divided in between pacifists and
    militants. The emperor had not idea how to
    handle the case.
  • Dongfang Shuo plotted a scheme that silenced
    those who advocated interracial marriages.

23
The Siege of Baideng ????
  • In 200, Liu Bang led 300,000 troops to attack
    Xiongnu.
  • ???chányú? chief of the Xiongnu in ancient China
  • Chanyu Mao Dun faked a retreat, thus leading Liu
    Bang to Baideng where 400,000 cavalryman formed a
    siege for 7 days and 7 nights

24
Liu Bangs Waterloo
  • The siege was only relieved after seven days when
    the Han royal court, under Chen Ping's (??)
    suggestion, sent spies to bribe Modu's wife.

25
The Policy of Interracial Marriage a political
marriage
  • ???héqin? (of some feudal dynasties) attempt to
    cement relations with rulers of minority
    nationalities in the border areas by marrying
    daughters of the Han imperial family to them.
  • Those poor princesses, being unable to stand a
    rough life style, died quickly

26
Dongfang Shuos Quick wits
  • While entertaining himself in Shanglin park ???
    (138 BCE)
  • , Emperor Wu Di of the Han Dynasty pointed at a
    tree and asked Dongfang Shuo, "What is that
    called?"
  • "It's called Goodness." replied Dongfang Shuo
    carelessly. Wu Di had it written down.
  • Several years later, playing in the garden again,
    Wu Di saw the tree and turned to Dongfang Shuo to
    ask its name. "it's named Jusuo (Overlooking
    all)." said Dongfang Shuo again carelessly.
  • Wu Di's expression changed, "You have been
    cheating me over the years. How can the same tree
    have different names?"
  • Dongfang Shuo defended himself with fervor and
    assurance "A horse is called horse only when it
    grows up it is a foal when young chicken is the
    name for a chick when it becomes older and a cow
    is called a calf when born. So it is with human
    beings They are called infants when born and old
    men when aged. The tree was Goodness several
    years ago and is now Overlooking-All. All the
    objects in the universe change. Don't you think
    that is the truth?"
  • Satisfied with Dongfang Shuo's reply, Wu Di
    laughed heartily. "

27
Zhang Qian ?? the Silk Road 200 BCE - 114 BCE
28
The Silk Road (61) Lifespan of a silkworm
29
San Xue ??
  • ??The Three Branches of Learning refer to
    Confucianism, Taoism (Daoism) Buddhism.
  • Mostly, Chinese history has reflected the
    dynamics between Confucianism Taoism (Daoism).
  • See Buddhism in a separate file
  • Buddhism in Chinese History
  • by Arthur F. Wright

30
The Han Synthesis (pluot/Plumcot) The Architect
(Ebrey 50)
  • Dong Zhongshu ???
  • (179104 BC) was a Han Dynasty scholar who is
    traditionally associated with the promotion of
    Confucianism as the official ideology of the
    Chinese imperial state.
  • The victory of Confucianism

31
Correlative Cosmology The Son of Heaven
  • The philosopher Dong Zhongshu developed a theory
    of correlative cosmology ????
  • to explain how natural phenomena were omens of
    political changes.
  • Dong Zhongshu shrewdly placed the son of heaven
    under heaven, not above heaven, thus Calf-roping
    a leash on ones ambition
  • Read the Han Synthesis online
  • Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and Autumn Annals
    ??????

32
Three-Way Thought Weaved Together
  • Confucianism a social contract with its
    five-folds human relationships which is featured
    with hierarchy and reciprocity rule by
    benevolence yet there is no guarantee that
    everybody will become a Confucius ideal
    gentleman, therefore idealistic at its best,
    naïve at its worst
  • Nevertheless, Confucianism provides a sense of
    moral guidance and restraint on the ruler who
    could be overthrown based on Mencius
    interpretation of the Mandate of Heaven
  • Daoism/Taoism provided a larger framework for
    understanding the nature of the world in which
    men lived It is a rule by the natural way
  • Legalism rule by law effective in
    administration yet seems too harsh

33
Confucianism vs. Taoism
  • Confucianism is rooted in the human world,
    focusing on the order of a family-based on
    thisness--society
  • Family is seen as a microcosm of how
    relationships linking people together
  • The assumption is a well behaved son is not
    likely to become a rebel against an authority
  • Taoism implies that there is something much
    larger than a human world
  • Taoism challenges us to reevaluate our position
    within the entire universe

34
Fan Kuans Painting http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F
ileTravelers_Among_Mountains_and_Streams.png
  • Travelers amid Mountains and Streams (???? ink
    and slight color on silk dimensions of 6¾ ft by
    2½ ft. National Palace Museum, Taipei

35
Becoming One with Nature
  • Fan Kuan ?? (fl. 9901020) was a Chinese
    landscape painter of the Song Dynasty (9601279).
  • Travelers amid Mountains and Streams, a large
    hanging scroll, is Fan Kuan's best known work.
    Fan based the painting on the Taoist principle of
    becoming one with nature. When looking at the
    painting, the viewer realizes how small he/she is
    compared to the big picture of nature. The
    painting focuses on the big picture of nature and
    the world as a whole instead of the individual.

36
historian Patricia Ebrey on the painting
  • the...foreground, presented at eye level, is
    executed in crisp, well-defined brush strokes.
    Jutting boulders, tough scrub trees, a mule train
    on the road, and a temple in the forest on the
    cliff are all vividly depicted. There is a
    suitable break between the foreground and the
    towering central peak behind, which is treated as
    if it were a backdrop, suspended and fitted into
    a slot behind the foreground. There are human
    figures in this scene, but it is easy to imagine
    them overpowered by the magnitude and mystery of
    their surroundings.

37
The (Natural) Way
  • ????Govern by doing nothing that is against
    nature or govern by non-interference.
  • This Wuwei should be translated as with no wrong
    actions. (In the movie of Kong Fu Panda, the
    masters name is called Wuwei, alluding to the
    essence of Daoism.)
  • It implies there is a natural way to do things
    instead of fighting it.

38
Appositional vs. Oppositional Complementary vs.
Competitive
  • A central theme of the Daodejing is that
    correlatives are the expressions of the movement
    of dao, the way
  • Correlatives in Chinese philosophy are not
    opposites, mutually excluding each other they
    represent the ebb and flow of the forces of
    reality yin/yang, male/female excess/defect
    leading/following active/passive.
  • In other words, opposites are not oppositional
    instead, they are complementary to each other.
  • BothAnd--holistic
  • As opposed to the Western way of thinking
    (Aristotelian categories and genre studies-- In
    Poetics, Aristotle proposes to treat poetry in
    itself and of its various kinds, noting the
    essential quality of each.) that treats a thing
    in itself and of itself has philosophical
    implications in many ways.
  • (Western dualism tends to be binary and
    oppositional)
  • EitherOr

39
Holistic vs. Analytical Inter-connectedness
  • The Daos holistic worldview has prescribed the
    philosophical underpinning of the Chinese
    medicine, martial arts, and many other things.
  • Sourcebook 28
  • The key word is complementary as opposed to
    competitive
  • The analytical mode tends to take things apart,
    treating each in an isolated manner

40
Daoism in Medical Practice
  • The traditional Chinese medicine in contrast
    deals with something in a more comprehensive way.
  • It pays more attention to the interrelationships
    among symptoms.
  • Some of my students who have been studying
    Chinese medicine have concluded that learning
    Chinese and Chinese culture has changed their way
    of thinking to a great degree.
  • Chinese medicine works better in maintaining lives
  • Western medicine, for instance, is quite
    effective in dealing with individual symptoms
    but it could have severe side effects.
  • ????,????treat headache when the head aches or
    treat a foot only when it hurts.
  • The western medicine is quite effective in saving
    lives

41
knowledge is partial
  • For the Taoists, knowledge is partial. We can
    never know things in their entirety (sounds like
    Kant). We can never know everything about any
    particular subject or situation.
  • So our knowledge, the basis for our actions, is
    always limited.
  • When we act on the basis of partial knowledge,
    there will be consequences, intended or
    unintended.

42
Let the saw do the work.
  • Let the saw do the work. Little James took it
    too literally when his father told him let the
    saw do the work. He threw the saw onto the
    ground and declared, OK, let the saw do the
    work.

43
A little tugboat vs. a huge ocean liner What is
so revealing about the little tugboat towing a
big ocean liner out of the harbor?
44
Martial Arts
  • ?????Four ounces can brush off a thousand
    pounds/jin.
  • ????tàijíquán? taijiquan, a kind of traditional
    Chinese shadow boxing
  • Why was Taiji selected at the opening ceremony of
    the Olympic Games 2008?
  • The soft touch in Daoism is most representative
    of the way.
  • Water, the softest element, represents wisdom,
    resourcefulness

45
The Construction of the Sunken Garden Victorial
BC, Canada
46
Daoism/Taoism at work
  • As Mr. Butchart exhausted the limestone in the
    quarry near their house, his enterprising wife,
    Jennie, conceived an unprecedented plan for
    refurbishing the bleak pit.
  • From farmland nearby she requisitioned tons of
    top soil, had it brought to Tod Inlet by horse
    and cart, and used it to line the floor of the
    abandoned quarry.
  • Little by little, under Jennie Butchart's supervis
    ion, the abandoned quarry blossomed into the
    spectacular Sunken Garden.

47
Transformation with Ease
48
Sublime vs. Beautiful
  • Contrast the breathtaking sunken garden with the
    delicate Japanese garden. Then you will suddenly
    understand what it means to be mathematically
    sublime as defined by Immanuel
  • Kant (22 April 1724 12 February 1804).
  • Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and
    Sublime (Beobachtungen über das Gefühl des
    Schönen und Erhabenen) is a 1764 book by Immanuel
    Kant.
  • The first complete translation into English was
    published in 1799. The second was published in
    1960 by the University of California Press.

49
What is Daoism/Taoism?
  • Daoism is featured with relativity in
    perspectivesSourcebook 29
  • It is marked with skepticism--Sourcebook 30
  • Correlatives are not oppositional but
    appositionial
  • Self and other are part of the package.
  • Read CR5_Zhuangzi online

50
Zhuang Zi Co-Founder of Taoism/Daoism
  • 369 BC-286 BC (aged 83) an influential Chinese
    philosopher who lived around the 4th century BCE
    during the Warring States Period, a period
    corresponding to the philosophical summit of
    Chinese thought the Hundred Schools of Thought.
    His name is sometimes spelled Chuang Tsu, Chuang
    Tzu, Zhuang Tze, Chouang-Dsi, Chuang Tse,
    Chuangtze or in English Master Chuang.

51
Inner Chapters
  • The Zhuangzi has become renowned for a series of
    original insights into human nature and the
    nature of the cosmos and many of these are found
    in the Inner chapters.
  • These insights are communicated in a variety of
    literary styles didactic narratives, poetry, and
    very short prose essays. (Cook Dings
    knifeSourcebook 30)

52
Sima Qian ??? Shi ji (ca. 145 or 135 BC86 BC)
Records of the Grand Historian
  • a Prefect of the Grand Scribes (???) of the Han
    Dynasty. He is regarded as the father of Chinese
    historiography because of his highly praised
    work, Records of the Grand Historian/Scribes (??
    or ??)
  • In 110BC, Sima Tan fell ill and could not attend
    the imperial sacrificial ceremony. Thinking he
    was about to die, he summoned his son to carry on
    the family tradition and to complete the work he
    had begun.

53
The Range of his Work (Ebrey 55)
  • Upon his father's death, Sima Qian inherited his
    office and took on an ambitious project started
    by his father - production of the first full
    history of China, the Shiji (historical records).
  • Shiji, or Records of the Grand Historian, covers
    the period from the five sages of prehistoric
    times, through the Xia, Shang, Zhou, and Qin
    dynasties to the Han Dynasty of Sima Qian's own
    time.

54
The Layout of Shiji Records of the Grand Historian
  • There are five sections
  • The Basic Annals
  • Chronological Tables
  • Treatises
  • Hereditary Houses
  • Memoirs/Biographies
  • Example The Basic Annals of Xiang Yu
  • (CR8 online)
  • ??
  • ?
  • ?
  • ??
  • ??

55
Castration
  • In 99 BC, Sima Qian became embroiled in the Li
    Ling Affair Li Ling (??) and Li Guangli (???),
    two military officers who led a campaign against
    the Xiongnu in the north were defeated and taken
    captive. Emperor Han Wudi attributed the defeat
    to Li Ling, and all the officials in the
    government condemned Li Ling for the defeat.
  • Sima was the only person to defend Li Ling, who
    had never been his friend but whom he respected.
    Emperor Han Wudi interpreted Simas defence of Li
    Ling as an attack on his brother-in-law, who had
    also fought against the Xiongnu without much
    success, and sentenced Sima to death.
  • At that time, execution could be commuted either
    by money or castration. Since Sima did not have
    enough money to atone his "crime", he chose the
    latter and was then thrown into prison, where he
    endured three years.

56
The Debate on Salt and Iron Monopolies
???(Ebrey 49-50)
  • Wudi adopted Sang Hongyangs proposal and had
    liquor, salt and iron controlled by the
    government.
  • Emperor Zhao of Han (94 BC74 BC) called for the
    famous debate in 81 BCE
  • Huan Kuan ?? compiled a book
  • Consult the source book 360 to 362
  • An Invisible Hand in The Wealth of Nation ???
  • by Adam Smith
  • first published in 1776. It is an account of
    economics at the dawn of the Industrial
    Revolution, as well as a rhetorical piece written
    for the generally educated individual of the 18th
    century - advocating a free market economy as
    more productive and more beneficial to society.
    The book is often considered to have laid the
    basic groundwork for modern economic theory.

57
Wang Mangs Usurpation (Ebrey 51) reign 9 - 23
(Killed by Lülin Force ???)
  • After Emperor Ai died childless, the throne was
    passed to his cousin Emperor Pingthen a child of
    nine years old. Wang Mang was appointed regent.
  • Later, Emperor Ping started to show
    dissatisfaction
  • In 6 AD, Wang Mang had Emperor Ping poisoned.

58
The Green Forest Rebellion Red Eyebrow Uprising
  • ????
  • ?lùlínhaohàn?
  • Chinese Robin Hoods
  • heroes of the greenwood forest outlaws a band
    of bandits entrenched in a mountain stronghold
    brigands.
  • Chimei (??) refers, as an umbrella term, to one
    of the two major agrarian rebellion movements
    against Wang Mang's Xin (New) Dynasty, initially
    active in the modern Shandong and northern
    Jiangsu region, that eventually led to Wang
    Mang's downfall by draining his resources

59
Liu Xiu, Emperor Guangwu of Han The Eastern Han
Dynasty
  • Emperor Guangwu (13 January 5 BC 29 March 57),
    born Liu Xiu, was an emperor of the Chinese Han
    Dynasty, restorer of the dynasty in AD 25 and
    thus founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the
    restored Han Dynasty). He ruled over parts of
    China at first, and through suppression and
    conquest of regional warlords, the whole of China
    was consolidated by the time of his death in 57.

60
The Battle of Kunyang JuneJuly in 23 AD ????
  • Liu Xiu would be instrumental in the key victory
    that sealed Wang Mang's fate. Wang, aware that
    Emperor Gengshi was becoming a major threat, sent
    his cousin Wang Yi (??) and his chancellor Wang
    Xun (??) with what he considered to be
    overwhelming force, some 430,000 men, intending
    to crush the newly constituted Han regime.

61
Battle of Kunyang Siege besieged
  • About 8,000 soldiers stationed in Kunyang, County
    Ye, Henan Province
  • Wang Mang laid a siege
  • Liu Xiu sneaked out and persuaded others United
    we stand divided, we fall.
  • Liu Xiu summoned about 10,000 to rescue Kunyang
  • Wang Mangs army got exhausted from the siege
  • Liu Xiu counter-cornered Wang Mangs troops

62
Liu Xiu Took City of Luoyang Whole without
shedding one drop of blood
  • In 25 AD, Liu Xiu took an oath by the Yellow
    River, promising no revenge
  • Zhu Wei ?? and his troops guarding the city
    surrendered without any fight
  • For the next century and half, the empire was
    both stable and prosperous
  • Read The Art of War
  • Definition of the most intelligent battle

63
Map of China with her neighbors
64
The Second Unified Dynasty Western Han
Achievements
  • The boundaries established by the Qin and
    maintained by the Han have more or less defined
    the nation of China up to the present day.
  • Have the Xiongnu (The Huns) under control
  • Unified in political system, language and
    cultural practice
  • The Han Synthesis weaving together Confucianism,
    Daoism and Legalism
  • Han Fu in poetry writing, see CR9_Han Fu
  • Best Translation David R. Knechtges

65
???donghàn? the Eastern Han or the Latter Han
(25-220).
  • Xiongnu driven westward to Europe
  • Cai Lun ?? (ca. 50 AD 121) improved papermaking
    (writing used to be inscriptions on bronze
    objects/stones, writings on bamboo slips??)
  • Ban Gu(32-92 AD) (Ebrey 57) Han Shu or History
    of the Former Han, pioneered history writing in
    ????duàndàishi? division of history into periods.

66
Achievements Eastern Han
  • Scientific sage Zhang Heng ??, a polymath, a
    person of great learning in several fields of
    study a renaissance man-- Houfeng Seismograph
    (132 AD), an instrument for measuring and
    recording the vibrations of earthquakes.

67
Houfeng Seismograph ????? 132 AD
  • According to the Book of Later Han???(compiled by
    Fan Ye in the 5th century), his bronze urn-shaped
    device, with a swinging pendulum inside, was able
    to detect the direction of an earthquake hundreds
    of miles/kilometers away.

68
Xu Shen?? ca. 58 CE ca. 147 CE
  • Linguistic sage Shuowén Jiezì
  • ????(100 AD)
  • ??shuo? talk explain
  • ??jie? explain, interpret
  • ??wén? writing
  • ??zì? word character
  • First Chinese dictionary, containing 9353
    characters organized by (540) radicals (Latin
    Radix for Root), semantic meaning

69
Six Categories of Chinese Characters or Sinograms
  • Xu Shen, 100 AD whose etymological dictionary
    Shuowen Jiezi (????/????) divides the script into
    six categories, the liùshu (??/??)
  • 1. Pictographic ??
  • 2. Self-explanatory or Simple ideograms
  • ?? (expressing an abstract idea in an iconic
    form)
  • 3. Associative Compounds/ Ideogrammatic compounds
  • ??/logical association
  • 4. Pictophonetic ?? (90)
  • 5. Mutually Explanatory or synonymous characters
  • ??
  • Phonetic Loans/ characters adopted to represent
    homophones ??

70
Medical Science
  • Medical sage Zhang Zhongjing ???treatise on
    Typhoid fever other miscellaneous diseases/
  • Hua Tuo ??, the first to use anesthetic
    full-scale or the whole body later hired by Cao
    Cao during the Three Kingdoms Period
  • ?????qisihuísheng? (of a doctor's skill) bring
    the dying back to life snatch a patient from the
    jaws of death.
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