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Academic Writing: Writing in a critical way

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Title: Essay Writing Author: General Paints Celbridge Last modified by: toconnor Created Date: 10/23/2003 10:31:15 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Academic Writing: Writing in a critical way


1
Academic Writing Writing in a critical way
  • Dr. Tamara OConnor
  • Student Learning Development
  • Student Counselling Service
  • student.learning_at_tcd.ie
  • 896-1407
  • http//student-learning.tcd.ie

2
Learning Objectives
  • Understand what is meant by academic writing
  • Awareness of academic conventions and practices
  • Learn how to develop argument in your writing
  • Awareness of plagiarism and use appropriate use
    of references/citations

3
Writing in an academic way
  • Being critical and analytical
  • Using language in a precise subject-specific
    way
  • Adopting a position - thesis
  • Drawing on and citing a range of authors
    arguments
  • Remaining objective

4
Writing Process
  • Planning
  • Thinking
  • Researching
  • Writing
  • Editing

5
Planning the assignment
  • Understand the question
  • Breakdown
  • Verbs
  • Requirements
  • Length, Wording
  • Referencing
  • Establish Time Frame

6
Thinking
  • Brainstorm
  • Ideas
  • What know
  • Try mindmapping
  • Preliminary reading
  • Refine topic
  • Continues throughout process

7
Organizing your argument
  • Title
  • Introduction
  • Thesis statement
  • Body Paragraphs
  • Constructing Topic Sentences
  • Building Main Points
  • Countering the Opposition
  • Conclusion
  • From Purdue University Writing Lab
    http//owl.english.purdue.edu/

8
Structure
  • Introduction
  • outline of essay
  • Main section
  • Main point A
  • details, evidence
  • Main point B
  • Conclusion
  • summary of main points
  • personal conclusions

9
Researching
  • Rough outline
  • Gather information relevant to topic
  • Keep good notes
  • organise content according to outline
  • choose what to include
  • Keep references
  • Digest and reflect on information

10
Writing
  • Start writing early
  • extend outline
  • one idea or section at a time
  • get something down!
  • Write first, rough draft
  • Revise improve draft
  • How many drafts?

11
What is critical writing?
  • Argument
  • Evaluate weigh up ideas
  • State point of view
  • Consider available evidence
  • Possible counter arguments
  • Claim that is proven throughout the paper
  • Opinion
  • Point of view
  • Lack of supporting evidence
  • Personal feelings and views

12
Steps in constructing thesis
  • Analyse topic
  • Write down your working thesis
  • Your point of view in relation to topic
  • Keep thesis prominent
  • Organise your argument
  • Develop argument
  • Document points and claims
  • Reference or bibliography

13
Develop your argument
  • Use source material reliable evidence
  • Show line of reasoning
  • link points
  • central guiding line
  • Show awareness of complexities
  • Counter arguments, relativism
  • Your conclusions - based on evidence

14
Signposting your line of reasoning
  • Indicator words for claims
  • Therefore, thus, hence, so, as a result
  • Indicator words for reasons
  • Because, since, on account of, for, in view of,
    for the reason that
  • Tentative or hedging

15
References
  • Why?
  • Credit sources of information ideas
  • Reader can locate for further information if
    required
  • Validate arguments
  • Increase and spread knowledge
  • Show depth, breadth quality of your reading!

16
References
  • When?
  • Direct quotes
  • Paraphrases
  • Statistics/Studies
  • Theories
  • Interpretations
  • Facts

17
Plagiarism
  • Using someones words or ideas and presenting
    them as your own (Marshall Rowland, 1998)
  • Inappropriate use of ideas from books, articles,
    internet, or other students work

???
18
References
  • How?
  • Reference system e.g. Harvard, Footnote
  • Record sources
  • Take careful notes
  • Reference list
  • In-text citing or referencing

19
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20
Further information
  • http//student-learning.tcd.ie
  • http//owl.english.purdue.edu
  • http//www.learnhigher.ac.uk
  • http//writing.umn.edu
  • Linking words http//www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/Re
    sources/la/QuickClicks20Repository/LC_worksheet_l
    inking20words.pdf
  • Crème Lea (1997). Writing at university.
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