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English Grammar 101

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Title: English Grammar 101


1
English Grammar 101
  • A Review of the Essentials
  • David A. deSilva

2
Parts of Speech
  • Nouns
  • Pronouns
  • Verbs
  • Adjective
  • Adverbs
  • Prepositions
  • Conjunctions
  • Interjections

3
Parts of Speech (2)
  • Nouns words that name persons, places, things,
    or ideas
  • Pronouns words that stand in for a noun
  • Verbs words that express action or state of
    being
  • Adjectives words that describe nouns or pronouns
  • Adverbs words that describe verbs
  • Prepositions words that connect a noun and its
    modifiers to another component of the sentence
  • Conjunctions words that join nouns, verbs, or
    other parts of a sentence
  • Interjections words that express emotion, shock,
    and the like.

4
Parts of a Sentence
  • Every sentence has a subject and a predicate.
  • The subject is the noun or the pronoun that the
    sentence says something about
  • The predicate is what is said about that noun or
    pronoun, i.e., what that noun does or what that
    noun is.
  • Jesus wept. (John 1135 NIV)
  • Jesus is the subject the sentence is about
    Jesus.
  • wept is the predicate what is said about
    Jesus.

5
Subjects and Predicates
  • And no one in heaven or on earth or under the
    earth was able to open the scroll or to look into
    it. (Rev 53 NRSV)
  • no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth
    is the subject the main subject would be one
    the rest is composed of modifiers (or
    descriptors)
  • was able to open the scroll or to look into it
    is the predicate the main predicate would be
    was the remaining words are complements and
    objects.

6
Subjects and Predicates (2)
  • When he had taken the scroll, the four living
    creatures and the twenty-four elders fell before
    the Lamb, each holding a harp and golden bowls
    full of incense, which are the prayers of the
    saints. (Rev 58 NRSV)
  • The subject is in italics all the rest is
    predicate (when he had tells when the elders
    fell).
  • Predicates can be split up subjects do not
    always come first.
  • In this sentence, we find a compound subject
    (more than one subject) (1) creatures and (2)
    elders.

7
Subjects and Predicates (3)
  • And the elders fell down and worshiped. (Rev
    514b NRSV)
  • In this example, we find a compound predicate
    the subject governs more than one verb (1)
    fell down and (2) worshiped
  • Then I saw between the throne and the four
    living creatures and among the elders a Lamb
    standing as if it had been slaughtered, having
    seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven
    spirits of God sent out into all the earth. (Rev
    56 NRSV)
  • In this example, the subject is one word I

8
Subjects and Predicates (4)
  • Sentences starting with there or it these
    words are often used as a kind of place marker
    for the real subject of a sentence.
  • There will be earthquakes in various places
    there will be famines. (Mk 138 NRSV)
  • Grammatically speaking, the sentence is
    Earthquakes will be will occur in various
    places famines will be will happen. The
    grammatical subjects are earthquakes and
    famine, not there and there.

9
Subjects and Predicates (5)
  • But in these sacrifices there is a reminder of
    sin year after year. (Heb 103 NRSV)
  • Grammatically speaking, the sentence is But a
    reminder of sins is in these sacrifices year
    after year. The real subject is reminder.
  • It is senseless to give a pledge, to become
    surety for a neighbor. (Prov 1718 NRSV)
  • Grammatically speaking to give a pledge is the
    subject (to become surety for a neighbor is set
    in apposition). To give a pledge is senseless.

10
Complements
  • Alongside the verb, the predicate often contains
    other essential parts of the sentence. These may
    include
  • Direct objects
  • Indirect objects
  • Predicate nominatives
  • Predicate adjectives

11
Complements (2)
  • Direct Objects and Indirect Objects occur with
    action verbs
  • The direct object receives the impact of the
    action. Put another way, the subject enacts the
    verb upon the direct object.
  • I baptize you with water for repentance. (Mt
    311 NRSV). The subject (I) enacts the verb
    (baptize), but it is the direct object (you)
    that gets dunked. ?

12
Complements (3)
  • He went and took the scroll. (Rev 57 NRSV)
  • The Lamb (he) does the going and taking the
    scroll is the object affected by the Lambs
    actions. The scroll is the direct object.
  • Bear fruit worthy of repentance. (Mt 38 NRSV)
  • In this imperative sentence, fruit is the thing
    that has to be borne it is the direct object of
    the command, bear.

13
Complements (4)
  • Indirect Objects nouns or pronouns that are the
    indirect recipients of the action, often the
    beneficiaries of the action (to or for whom
    the action happens).
  • By your blood you ransomed for God saints from
    every tribe and language and people and nation.
    (Rev 59 NRSV).
  • The subject is you the main verb of the
    predicate, ransomed, saints are the ones
    actually ransomed, hence the direct object.
    God is the indirect object the ransoming of
    the saints has an indirect effect on God, for
    whom the action happens.

14
Complements (5)
  • God is able from these stones to raise up
    children to Abraham. (Matt 39 NRSV)
  • Looking at the infinitive to raise up, the
    direct object of the infinitive is children,
    the entities actually raised up the indirect
    object is Abraham, to whom (i.e., in whose
    favor) these children are raised up.

15
Complements (6)
  • Predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives
    occur with verbs expressing being or a state of
    being (also called linking verbs).
  • God is able (Matt 39 NRSV).
  • Subject God verb is able is a predicate
    adjective. The whole point of the sentence is to
    link God with this quality, or predicate this
    quality upon God.

16
Complements (7)
  • You are worthy to take the scroll and to open
    its seals. (Rev 59 NRSV)
  • Subject you main verb are worthy is
    another predicate adjective (followed by two
    complementary infinitives, to take and to
    open, further describing this worthiness).
  • No one was found worthy to open the scroll or to
    look into it. (Rev 54 NRSV)
  • worthy is still a predicate adjective, since
    was found ( was proven to be) is still a
    state of being verb.

17
Complements (8)
  • Jesus Christ is Lord (Phil 211 NRSV)
  • Subject Jesus Christ main verb is Lord
    is a noun that is being predicated of Jesus
    Christ it is a predicate nominative.
  • Sometimes a direct object can also have a
    complement in the form of an adjective or noun
    predicated, in effect, upon it.
  • You have made them a kingdom and priests to our
    God. (Rev 510 ESV)
  • them is the direct object, but a kingdom and
    priests is also specifically what God made
    them the phrase is an object complement.

18
Kinds of Sentences
  • Declarative sentences stating something (whether
    fictive or real, narrative or argument).
  • I began to weep bitterly because no one was
    found worthy to open the scroll or to look into
    it. (Rev 54 NRSV)
  • Interrogative sentences asking a question (thus
    calling for some declarative statement in
    response).
  • Who is worthy to open the scroll and break its
    seals? (Rev 52 NRSV)

19
Kinds of Sentences (2)
  • Sometimes an interrogative statement is in
    transposed word order the subject is most easily
    found when one reformulates the question as a
    statement.
  • What did you go out into the wilderness to look
    at? (Mt 117 NRSV)
  • What is not the subject it is, in fact, the
    object of the preposition at. The subject is
    you You did go out into the wilderness to
    look at ____.

20
Kinds of Sentences (3)
  • Imperative sentences that issue commands.
  • Repent, for the kingdom of heaven has come
    near. (Mt 32 NRSV)
  • Bear fruit worthy of repentance. (Mt 38 NRSV)
  • "Do not weep. (Rev 55 NRSV)
  • In all these examples the subject You is not
    expressed, but is understood. Repent, you, for
    the kingdom.

21
Kinds of Sentences (4)
  • There are 1st and 3rd person commands as well, in
    which the subject will be expressed.
  • 1st person plural Let us hold fast to our
    confession. (Heb 414 NRSV)
  • 3rd person singular Let him who is without sin
    among you be the first to throw a stone at her.
    (Jn 87 ESV)
  • 3rd person plural If any want to become my
    followers, let them deny themselves and take up
    their cross and follow me. (Mt 1624 NRSV)

22
Nouns
  • Words that denote a person, place, thing, or idea
  • Can be proper nouns (e.g., Peter, Judea) or
    common nouns (e.g., disciple, region)
  • Can have number singular, disciple plural,
    disciples (note usually there is a change of
    form)
  • Special ending for possessive/genitive case the
    Lords day, the nations tribute

23
Nouns
  • 6 Then I saw between the throne and the four
    living creatures and among the elders a Lamb
    standing as if it had been slaughtered, having
    seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven
    spirits of God sent out into all the earth.
  • 7 He went and took the scroll from the right
    hand of the one who was seated on the throne.

24
Nouns
  • 6 Then I saw between the throne and the four
    living creatures and among the elders a Lamb
    standing as if it had been slaughtered, having
    seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven
    spirits of God sent out into all the earth.
  • 7 He went and took the scroll from the right
    hand of the one who was seated on the throne.

25
Pronouns
  • Words used in place of a proper or common noun.
    A pronoun generally has an antecedent a
    specific noun named earlier in the discourse for
    which the pronoun is standing in.

26
Personal Pronouns
  • Personal pronouns have person, number, and
    case.
  • Singular (nominative) I (1st) , you (2nd) , he,
    she, it (3rd)
  • Plural (nominative) we (1st) , you (2nd) , they
    (3rd)
  • Singular (objective) me, you, him, her, it
  • Plural (objective) us, you, them

27
Personal Pronouns
  • And I began to weep bitterly because no one was
    found worthy to open the scroll or to look into
    it.
  • Then one of the elders said to me, "Do not weep.
    See, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of
    David, has conquered, so that he can open the
    scroll and its seven seals."

28
Personal Pronouns
  • And I began to weep bitterly because no one was
    found worthy to open the scroll or to look into
    it.
  • Then one of the elders said to me, "Do not weep.
    See, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of
    David, has conquered, so that he can open the
    scroll and its seven seals."

29
Possessive Pronouns
  • Singular mine, yours, his, hers, its
  • Plural ours, yours, theirs
  • He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and
    not for ours our sins only but also for the
    sins of the whole world. (1 John 22)
  • My beloved is mine and I am his. (Song 216)

30
Possessive Pronouns vs. Possessive Adjectives
  • Pronouns stand in for nouns he atoned not
    only for their sins, but ours. Ours stands in
    for the noun sins.
  • Adjectives describe nouns he atoned for our
    sins. Our describes a noun in the sentence.

31
Intensive and Reflexive Pronouns
  • Singular myself, yourself, himself, herself,
    itself
  • Plural ourselves, yourselves, themselves
  • Intensive He himself was not the light, but he
    came to testify to the light. (John 18)
  • Reflexive "Is he going to kill himself? Is that
    what he means by saying, 'Where I am going, you
    cannot come'? (John 822)

32
Definite Relative Pronouns
  • Introduce subordinate clauses that, as a whole,
    function as adjectives (supplying additional
    information about some noun or pronoun). As with
    most pronouns, the definite relative pronoun
    points back to some antecedent (some noun to
    which it is referring)
  • Who, whom (objective case of who), whose
    (possessive case of who), which/that

33
Relative Clauses
  • The relative pronoun introduces a relative clause
    with a verb and, often, objects, modifiers, and
    prepositional phrases. The entire clause
    modifies some noun or pronoun in the main
    sentence (the antecedent of the relative
    pronoun).
  • A relative clause generally could have been
    written as a separate sentence
  • You love Lazarus.
  • Lazarus is sick.
  • He Lazarus whom you love is sick. (John 113)

34
Relative Pronouns (and relative clauses)
  • He went and took the scroll from the right hand
    of the one who was seated on the throne.
  • This is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah
    spoke. (Matt 33)
  • I baptize you with water for repentance, but one
    who is more powerful than I is coming after me,
    whose sandals I am not worthy to carry. (Matt
    311)

35
Indefinitive relative pronouns
  • The relative pronoun can also be used where there
    is no antecedent, sometimes generalized
    (whoever, whatever)
  • Whoever denies me before others, I also will
    deny before my Father in heaven. (Matt 1033)
  • Remember then what you received and heard (Rev
    33)

36
Interrogative Pronouns
  • Used to ask questions no antecedent
  • Who? What? Which?
  • Who is worthy to open the scroll and break its
    seals? (Rev 52)

37
Demonstrative Pronouns
  • Used to point out particular objects.
  • This, these that, those
  • Nearer demonstratives this, these
  • Farther demonstratives that, those

38
Demonstrative Pronouns
  • This this person is the one of whom the
    prophet Isaiah spoke. (Matt 33)
  • Then one of the elders addressed me, saying, "Who
    are these these people, robed in white, and
    where have they come from? (Rev 713)
  • Blessed are those those people who mourn,
    for they will be comforted. (Matt 54)

39
Indefinite Pronouns
  • These pronouns do not refer to specific persons
    or things, but rather to general types or
    classes.
  • Anyone, anybody, anything someone, somebody,
    something everyone, everybody, everything none,
    nobody, nothing all, few, many, several, etc.

40
Indefinite Pronouns
  • Blessed is anyone who takes no offense at me.
    (Matt 116)
  • The kingdom of heaven may be compared to someone
    who sowed good seed in his field. (Matt 1324)
  • For many are called, but few are chosen. (Matt
    2214)

41
Reciprocal Pronouns
  • Pronouns indicating that the individual members
    of a collective subject act back on other members
    of the group.
  • One another, each other
  • I give you a new commandment, that you love one
    another. (John 1334)
  • What are you discussing with each other while
    you walk along? (Luke 2417)

42
Appositives
  • Nouns or pronouns can be used simply to rename
    another noun or pronoun in the sentence. The
    second noun or pronoun is said to stand in
    apposition to the first, and is like a
    parenthetical comment.
  • A Savior, Christ, the Lord, is born for you
    today in Davids city (Luke 211)
  • Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ, to
    all the saints. (Phil 11)
  • Ananias came down with some elders and an
    attorney, a certain Tertullus, and they reported
    their case against Paul. (Acts 241)

43
Verbs
  • Action
  • Jesus wept.
  • I saw a mighty angel.
  • He went and took the scroll.
  • State of being
  • no one was able.
  • You are worthy.

44
Verbs (2)
  • English verbs are often formed by a combination
    of one or more helping verbs with a main
    verb.
  • The Lion has conquered.
  • You were slaughtered.
  • They will reign on earth.
  • Helping verbs are an essential part of the
    formation of the various voices, tenses, and
    aspects of the English verb.

45
Helping Verbs Listed
  • Common Helping Verbs
  • Do, does, did
  • Has, have, had
  • Am, are, is, were, was, be, being, been
  • Modal Helping Verbs
  • Can, could
  • May, might
  • Must
  • Shall, should, ought to
  • Will, would

46
Verbs Person and Number
  • 1st Person
  • Singular I heal.
  • Plural We heal.
  • 2nd Person
  • Singular You heal.
  • Plural You (Yall) heal.
  • 3rd Person
  • Singular He, she, it heals.
  • Plural They heal.

47
Verbs Voice
  • Active The subject of the sentence performs the
    action of the verb, often upon one or more
    objects.
  • He went and took the scroll.
  • They will reign on earth.
  • Passive The action of the verb is done to the
    Subject of the sentence.
  • You were slaughtered.
  • They were baptized by him in the river Jordan.

48
Verbs Tense(all examples are in active voice)
  • Present
  • Simple I baptize.
  • Progressive I am baptizing.
  • Past
  • Simple I baptized.
  • Progressive I was baptizing.
  • Future
  • Simple I will baptize.
  • Progressive I will be baptizing.

49
Verbs Tenses (2)
  • Present Perfect
  • Simple I have baptized.
  • Progressive I have been baptizing.
  • Past Perfect (Pluperfect)
  • Simple I had baptized.
  • Progressive I had been baptizing.
  • Future Perfect
  • Simple I will have baptized.
  • Progressive I will have been baptizing.

50
Verbs Tenses (Passive Examples)
  • Present
  • Simple I am baptized.
  • Progressive I am being baptized.
  • Past
  • Simple I was baptized.
  • Progressive I was being baptized.
  • Future
  • Simple I will be baptized.
  • Progressive I will be being baptized. (Not
    regularly used.)

51
Verbs Tenses (Passive Examples)
  • Present Perfect
  • Simple I have been baptized.
  • Progressive N/A
  • Past Perfect (Pluperfect)
  • Simple I had been baptized.
  • Progressive N/A
  • Future Perfect
  • Simple I will have been baptized.
  • Progressive N/A

52
Verbs Moods
  • Indicative Narrating Facts or Purported Facts
  • John was baptizing in the Jordan River.
  • Imperative Giving Commands
  • Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near.
  • Subjunctive Unreal Situations
  • "If this man were a prophet, he would have known
    who and what sort of woman this is who is
    touching him, for she is a sinner."
    (Luke 739 ESV)

53
Verbal Forms
  • Infinitives the bare form of the verb
  • Present Active (time contemporary with or
    subsequent to main verb) To heal, to save,
    to call
  • Present Passive To be healed, to be saved,
    to be called
  • Perfect Active (time prior to main verb) To
    have healed, to have loved
  • Perfect Passive To have been healed, to have
    been loved
  • Stative To be, to have been

54
Infinitives Uses
  • As a noun
  • Subject of verb To live is Christ, and to die
    is gain. (Phil 121 ESV)
  • What is?
  • Object of verb I want to know Christ. (Phil
    310 NRSV)
  • I want what?

55
Infinitive Uses (2)
  • As an adjective
  • By faith Sarah herself received power to
    conceive. (Heb 1111 NRSV)
  • The infinitive answers the question what kind of
    power?

56
Infinitive Uses (3)
  • As an adverb
  • Abraham obeyed when he was called to go out.
    (Heb 118 NRSV)
  • Supplies more information about the verb called
  • God is not ashamed to be called their God. (Heb
    1116)
  • Supplies more information about the adjective
    ashamed, perhaps giving the circumstances

57
Participles
  • Active baptizing
  • While baptizing by the river, John was arrested.
  • Passive baptized
  • Baptized by John, Peter and Andrew went out to
    preach.
  • Participles can form additional voices and tenses
    with helping verbs, e.g.
  • Perfect Active having baptized
  • Having baptized many, Johns reputation spread.
  • Perfect Passive having been baptized
  • Having been baptized by John, the tax collectors
    repented.

58
Participles Usage
  • Adjectival Participial Clauses the participles
    describes some noun or pronoun
  • I saw in the right hand of the one seated on the
    throne a scroll written on the inside and on the
    back, sealed with seven seals (Rev 51 NRSV)
  • The participle seated introduces a clause that
    further describes the one the participles
    written and sealed introduce clauses giving
    additional information describing the scroll.

59
Participles Usage (2)
  • Adverbial Participial Clauses the participle
    gives more information about the action of the
    main verb
  • These all died in faith, not having received the
    things promised, but having seen them and greeted
    them from afar, and having acknowledged that they
    were strangers and exiles on the earth. (Heb
    1113 NRSV)
  • not having received and having seen and
    greeted and having acknowledged all describe
    under what circumstances these all died.
  • They were baptized by him in the river Jordan,
    confessing their sins. (Matt 36 NRSV)
  • Confessing supplies information about the
    circumstances under which the people were being
    baptized.

60
Gerunds (Participles acting as Nouns)
  • The gerund looks like the present participle in
    form baptizing, seeing, healing
  • As a gerund, however, the word acts as a simple
    noun, naming the particular action.
  • To me, living is Christ and dying is gain (Phil
    121 NRSV).
  • Living and Dying are both fulfilling the role
    of nouns as subjects of the verb is.

61
Verbals and their Complements
  • Participles, Infinitives, and Gerunds can take
    all the complements that a normal verb can take
  • Adverbs
  • Direct Objects
  • Indirect Objects
  • Adverbial Prepositional Phrases
  • Predicate Nominatives

62
Adjectives
  • Words used to describe nouns or pronouns.
    Adjectives are words that answer questions like
    what kind of ____? or which _____? or how
    many _____?
  • Attributive Adjectives (simple descriptors)
  • Then I saw in the right hand of the one seated on
    the throne a scroll written on the inside and on
    the back, sealed with seven seals and I saw a
    mighty angel proclaiming with a loud voice, Who
    is worthy to open the scroll and break its
    seals? (Rev 51-2 NRSV)

63
Adjectives (2)
  • Predicate Adjectives the point of the sentence
    is to link a noun or pronoun with a descriptor by
    means of a linking verb (a form of be, become,
    etc.)
  • No one in heaven or on earth or under the earth
    was able to open the scroll (Rev 53)
  • No one S was V able Pred Adj
  • No one was found worthy. (Rev 54)
  • You are worthy to take the scroll. (Rev 59)

64
Adjectives (3)
  • Substantive Adjectives Adjectives can be used as
    nouns, as in the title, The Good, the Bad, and
    the Ugly.
  • Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the
    earth. Blessed are the merciful, for they will
    receive mercy. (Mt 55, 7 NRSV)
  • meek and merciful are actually adjectives.
    Here it is understood that Jesus is talking about
    those who are meek or the meek ones.

65
Adjectives (4)
  • Adjectives have degrees
  • Positive holy, righteous, good
  • you are my strong refuge (Ps 717)
  • Comparative holier, more righteous, better
  • And the LORD made his people stronger than
    their enemies (Ps 10524)
  • Superlative holiest, most righteous, best
  • The anger of God rose against them and he killed
    the strongest of them (Ps 7831)

66
Adverbs
  • Adverbs are words that give more information
    about the action of the sentence i.e., the verb
    or about an adjective or even another adverb.
    Adverbs often answer questions like
  • How?
  • Why?
  • Where?
  • When?
  • Under what circumstances?
  • To what degree or extent? (This is the sense in
    which adverbs generally describe adjectives and
    other adverbs.)
  • Adverbs often, but do not always, end in -ly

67
Adverbs (2)
  • I began to weep bitterly because no one was
    found worthy to open the scroll or to look into
    it. (Rev 54 NRSV)
  • How was John weeping?
  • I know you are enduring patiently and bearing up
    for my name's sake. (Rev 23 ESV)
  • How are the believers enduring?
  • When the disciples heard this, they were greatly
    astonished. (Matt 1925 NIV)
  • To what extent were the disciples astonished?

68
Adverbs (3)
  • Like adjectives, adverbs can be compared
  • Positive bitterly
  • Comparative more bitterly
  • Superlative most bitterly
  • Irregular comparisons also exist
  • Well, better, best
  • Little, less, least
  • Badly, worse, worst

69
Caution When adverbs look like prepositions
  • And when he had looked around at everything, as
    it was already late, he went out to Bethany with
    the twelve. (Mark 1111).
  • Around is often used as a preposition, as in I
    heard the voice of many angels around the throne
    (Rev 511 NASU). In Mk 1111, however, around
    describes the action of looking Where did
    Jesus look?

70
Prepositions
  • Prepositions stand before a noun or pronoun (and
    its descriptors) to create a prepositional
    phrase.
  • The entire prepositional phrase will describe
    some other noun or pronoun in the sentence
    (acting adjectivally) or the verb in the clause
    to which it is related (acting adverbially).

71
Prepositions (2)
  • Some common prepositions in prepositional phrases
    (from Mt 31-12)
  • in the wilderness
  • from the coming wrath
  • to yourselves
  • at the root
  • of the trees
  • into the granary
  • with unquenchable fire

72
Common Prepositions
  • About, above, according to, across, after,
    against, along, alongside of, among, around,
    at, because of, before, behind, below, beneath,
    beside(s), between, beyond, by, concerning,
    despite, down, during, except, for, from, in,
    inside, instead of, into, like, near, of, off,
    on, out of, over, past, since, through,
    throughout, to, together with, toward, under,
    underneath, until, unto, up, upon, up to, with,
    within, without

73
Prepositions (3)
  • I tell you, God is able from these stones to
    raise up children to Abraham. Even now the ax is
    lying at the root of the trees every tree
    therefore that does not bear good fruit is cut
    down and thrown into the fire. (Mt 39-10 NRSV)
  • Adverbial prepositional phrases
  • from these stones (giving information about the
    raising)
  • to Abraham (ditto)
  • at the root (where is the ax lying?)
  • into the fire (where is it being thrown?)
  • Adjectival prepositional phrase
  • of the trees (giving information about what
    root)

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Prepositions (4a)
  • Then I saw in the right hand of the one seated
    on the throne a scroll written on the inside and
    on the back, sealed with seven seals. And no one
    in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able
    to open the scroll or to look into it. (Rev 51,
    3 NRSV)

75
Prepositions (4b)
  • Then I saw in the right hand adv. where saw?
    of the one adj. describes what hand seated on
    the throne adv. where seated? a scroll written
    on the inside adv. how or where written? and
    on the back adv., sealed with seven seals
    adv. sealed by what means or how?. And no one
    in heaven adj. describes one or on earth
    adj. or under the earth adj. was able to open
    the scroll or to look into it adv. look
    where?. (Rev 51, 3 NRSV)

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Caution
  • Many words that can function as prepositions can
    also function as other parts of speech!
  • Since can be a preposition, conjunction, or
    adverb
  • To can be a preposition (to the river), or it
    can be part of an infinitive (to come, to
    sing, to look)
  • FUNCTION determines what a word is in a given
    context

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Conjunctions
  • Conjunctions are used to link words or phrases
    together (coordinating conjunctions), set them in
    relationship to one another (correlative
    conjunctions), or subordinate one clause to
    another, usually giving some indication of the
    logical relationship between those clauses
    (subordinating conjunctions).

78
Conjunctions (2)
  • Coordinating Conjunctions and, or, but, so, yet
  • No one in heaven or on earth or under the earth
    was able to open the scroll or to look into it.
    Rev 53 NRSV)
  • The first two conjunctions link three
    prepositional phrases together as one overarching
    unit of modifiers describing one
  • The last conjunction links two infinitives,
    connecting both as complements to was able

79
Conjunctions (3a)
  • You are worthy to take the scroll and to open
    its seals, for you were slaughtered and by your
    blood you ransomed for God saints from every
    tribe and language and people and nation. (Rev
    59 NRSV)

80
Conjunctions (3b)
  • You are worthy to take the scroll and to open
    its seals, for you were slaughtered and by your
    blood you ransomed for God saints from every
    tribe and language and people and nation. (Rev
    59 NRSV)
  • The first and links two infinitives as
    complements to worthy (worthy of what?)
  • The second and links two clauses as part of the
    rationale introduced by for (you were
    slaughtered and you ransomed)
  • The last three occurrences of and link four
    nouns as the common objects of the preposition
    from

81
Conjunctions (4)
  • Correlative (bothand, neithernor, not only
    but also, eitheror)
  • At that time his voice shook the earth, but now
    he has promised, Yet once more I will shake not
    only the earth but also the heavens. (Heb 1228
    ESV)
  • The not onlybut also coordinates earth and
    heaven as twin objects of the verb shake,
    while also establishing a stronger relationship
    between the two objects.
  • Store up for yourselves treasures in heaven,
    where neither moth nor rust consumes and where
    thieves do not break in and steal. (Matt 620
    NRSV)
  • neither and nor link moth and rust as two
    subjects of the verb consumes.

82
Conjunctions (5)
  • Subordinating Conjunctions (when, while, after,
    before, since where whether as, as if
    because though, although if, unless so, so
    that, in order that as as rather than)
  • Used to connect noun or adverb clauses to some
    other element in the sentence

83
Conjunctions (6)
  • And I began to weep bitterly because no one was
    found worthy to open the scroll or to look into
    it. Then one of the elders said to me, Do not
    weep. See, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the
    Root of David, has conquered, so that he can open
    the scroll and its seven seals. Then I saw
    between the throne and the four living creatures
    and among the elders a Lamb standing as if it had
    been slaughtered, having seven horns and seven
    eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent out
    into all the earth. (Rev 54-6 NRSV)
  • because introduces a subordinate clause
    specifying CAUSE
  • so that introduces a subordinate clause
    specifying RESULT
  • as if introduces a subordinate clause
    specifying MANNER

84
Conjunctive Adverbs
  • Not to be confused with subordinating
    conjunctions, these adverbs can also be used to
    indicate the relationship between independent
    clauses
  • Accordingly, also, anyway, besides, certainly,
    consequently, conversely, finally, furthermore,
    hence, however, incidentally, indeed, instead,
    likewise, meanwhile, moreover, nevertheless,
    next, nonetheless, otherwise, similarly,
    specifically, still, subsequently, then,
    therefore, thus

85
Interjections
  • Words usually expressing surprise or emotion,
    drawing attention to something or some
    experience.
  • And those who passed by derided him, wagging
    their heads and saying, Aha! You who would
    destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days,
    save yourself, and come down from the cross!
    (Mk 1529-30 ESV)
  • His disciples said, "Ah, now you are speaking
    plainly and not using figurative speech! (Jn
    1629 ESV)

86
Kinds of Sentences and Clauses
  • Clauses groups of related words containing a
    subject and a verb.
  • Independent (or main) clauses An independent
    clause expressed a grammatically complete thought
    and can stand alone as a complete sentence.
  • John the Baptist appeared in the wilderness of
    Judea. (Matt 31 NRSV)
  • John wore clothing of camel's hair with a
    leather belt around his waist, and his food was
    locusts and wild honey. (Matt 33 NRSV) a
    compound of two independent clauses.

87
Kinds of Sentences and Clauses (2)
  • Dependent (subordinate) clauses these clauses
    are not complete sentences, but must always be
    attached to a main (independent) clause.
  • because no one was found worthy to open the
    scroll or to look into it. (Rev 54 NRSV)
  • so that he can open the scroll and its seven
    seals. (Rev 55 NRSV)
  • as if it had been slaughtered. (Rev 56 NRSV)
  • In each of these three examples, there is a
    subject (bold) and verb (italic), but none can
    stand as a complete sentence.

88
Kinds of Sentences and Clauses (3)
  • By faith Sarah herself received power to
    conceive, even when she was past the age, since
    she considered him faithful who had promised.
    (Heb 1111 NRSV)
  • By faith Sarah herself received power to
    conceive. (Main clause could stand alone as a
    complete sentence)
  • even when she was past the age (Subordinate
    clause)
  • since she considered him faithful who had
    promised (Subordinate clause)

89
Kinds of Sentences and Clauses (4)
  • Phrases
  • These are related groups of words that do not
    contain both a subject and a verb, e.g.,
    prepositional phrases and participial phrases.
  • in the right hand
  • of the one
  • seated on the throne
  • sealed with seven seals
  • proclaiming with a loud voice
  • having seven horns and seven eyes
  • into all the earth

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Functions of Subordinate Clauses
  • Adjectival (most often involving relative clauses
    introduced by relative pronouns)
  • This is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah
    spoke. (Matt 33 NRSV)
  • Every tree therefore that does not bear good
    fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire.
    (Matt 510 NRSV)
  • One who is more powerful than I is coming after
    me. (Matt 511 NRSV)
  • These can be introduced also by where, when,
    why, and whose
  • He has risen. Come and see the place where he
    lay. (Matt 286 NIV) Still answers the
    question, What place?

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Functions of Subord. Clauses (2)
  • Adverbial
  • Temporal (when does the action of the main clause
    take place?)
  • When he had taken the scroll, the four living
    creatures and the twenty-four elders fell before
    the Lamb. (Rev 58 NRSV)
  • Location (where does the action of the main
    clause take place?)
  • You knew that I reap where I have not sowed and
    gather where I scattered no seed. (Matt 2526
    ESV)
  • Manner (by what means or in what manner does the
    action of the main clause take place?)
  • I saw a Lamb standing as if it had been
    slaughtered. (Rev 56 NRSV)

92
Functions of Subord. Clauses (3)
  • Cause (for what reason does the action of the
    main clause take place?)
  • I began to weep bitterly because no one was
    found worthy to open the scroll or to look into
    it. (Rev 54 NRSV)
  • Concession (despite what does the action of the
    main clause take place?)
  • Although he was a son, he learned obedience from
    what he suffered. (Heb 58 NIV)
  • Condition (under what circumstances would the
    action of the main clause take place?)
  • If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, I
    will come in and eat with him, and he with me.
    (Rev 320 NIV)

93
Functions of Subord. Clauses (4)
  • Purpose (to what end does the action of the main
    clause take place?)
  • They watched Him, and sent spies who pretended
    to be righteous, in order that they might catch
    Him in some statement. (Luke 2020 NASU)
  • Result (to what effect did the action of the main
    clause take place?)
  • The Lion of the tribe of Judah has conquered,
    so that he can open the scroll and its seven
    seals. (Rev 55 NRSV)

94
Functions of Subord. Clauses (5)
  • Noun Clauses the clause as a whole plays a role
    usually assigned to a noun (like subject, direct
    object, object of a preposition).
  • When he heard that Archelaus was reigning over
    Judea in place of his father Herod, he was afraid
    to go there. (Matt 222 ESV) the whole that
    clause is the direct object of he heard
  • What you sow must die before it is given new
    life (1 Cor 1536 NJB) What you sow
    functions, as a whole, as the subject of the
    sentence.
  • Note because noun clauses often play an integral
    role in the main clause, they are often not
    separable from the main clause (as adjectival and
    adverbial clauses are).
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