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Microbiology in the Biological World

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Title: Microbiology in the Biological World


1
Microbiology in the Biological World
2
  • Why study Microbiology?
  • 1. Helps us to understand
    life forms by understanding
    ones.
  • 2. of infectious diseases (Small pox, Typhoid
    fever, Cholera).
  • 3. Various .

3
  • Evolution of Microbiology
  • was the first to
    observe the microscopic world with a 3X
    microscope (1632-1723).
  • - Observed cork
    termed the word
  • .

4
  • 2. Theory of Spontaneous Generation (SG).
    Organisms appeared out of no where.
  • Ex. If meat was left out flies appeared.
  • A. - disproved (SG) in higher organisms but not
    in microorganisms.
  • B. - supported (SG) in microorganisms.
  • After sterilization (Boiling) microorganisms
    still arouse.
  • C. - disproved (SG) by conducting an experiment
    using bottle swan neck flask.
  • Proved that dust must carry microorganisms.
  • D. - dust carries bacteria that can grow after
    heating - - heat stable form of bacteria.

5
  • 3. Fermentation
  • - First problem as a microbiologist was to
    discover why the production of alcohol from sugar
    beets would occasionally produce lactic acid.
  • DISCOVERED two types of bacteria
  • - required for
    survival
  • - does require
    oxygen

6
  • 4. Germ Theory
  • 1834 - first time disease was linked to an
    microorganism.
  • A. - disease in silk worm was a
    result in a fungus infection.
  • B. - 1865 - similar work.
  • C. - credited with the first
    attempt to prevent post surgical infection by
    using diluted phenol.
  • D. - developed rules to establish a
    cause effect relationship between an
    microorganism a disease.
  • Kochs Postulates
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.

7
Microbiology Stepping Stones
8
  • Divisions of Microbiology
  • 1. - study
    of microorganisms that cause disease in humans
    animals.
  • 2. -
    reaction of a host to the infection.
  • 3. -alcohol
    beverages, antibodies.
  • 4. - harmful
    or beneficial to the production of agricultural
    products.
  • 5. -
    recombinant DNA. Human insulin. Synthesis of
    vaccine.

9
  • Medical Microbiology Past Triumphs
  • 1. Small Pox Viral disease - 10 million peopled
    died
  • No cases reported since 1977
  • 2. Bubonic Plague Bacterial Disease - 25 million
    people died
  • 100 people die/year from it

10
  • Future Challenges
  • Not all diseases are under control.
  • 1. million cases of infections
    /year in US (22,000 deaths)
  • 2. Lyme disease,
    , AIDS, Hantavirus.
  • 3. New diseases may emerge (
    ).
  • 4. Old diseases are on the increase in US
  • A. Travelers from foreign countries - 1 in 5
    vistors come from a country with Malaria,
    Yellow fever, Cholera.
  • B. Resistant microbes.
  • C. Medicines are increasing the life span,
    therefore immune system weakens in elderly
    people.
  • D. Children in developing countries were under
    controlled (mumps, whooping cough, measles).
    Parents lax about vaccinating children.

11
  • Cell Theory
  • 1. Cell is the fundamental unit of life cells
    come from pre-existing cells (1839 - Schleiden
    Schwann).
  • Similarity in Function Composition of Cells
  • All cells have the same problems
  • 1. Reproduce
    copies of itself.
  • 2. Obtain use
    for reproduction.
  • Solutions
  • 1. - protein molecules to speed
    up chemical reactions.
  • 2. - genetic information.
  • 3. - protein synthesis.
  • 4. - energy.
  • 5. - help enzymes.
  • 6. - building blocks of proteins.

12
  • Origin of Life
  • First form of life appeared about
    .
  • Earths environment
  • High temperature, ,
    lighting catalyzed to formed amino
    acids (AA).
  • Proven by
  • Conducted experiments where he replicated early
    Earths environment by inducing a spark
    s were formed.
  • Eventually over time
  • gt gt
    gt
  • Other organic compounds were mixed in until a
    being developed capable of directing synthesis of
    simple organic molecules.
  • In time self replication -
    .

13
Prokaryotic
14
  • First cells were Prokaryotes, then over time
    developed into Eukaryotes.
  • Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
  • No intracellular . 1.
    Intracellular membranes present
    (organelles).
  • 2. present with 2. Cell
    membrane always
  • . present with cell
    .
  • 3. . 3.
    .
  • DNA not separated DNA was separated
    from the rest from the rest of of the cell.
  • the cell
  • 4. DNA - 4. DNA -proteins
  • 5. DNA continuous thread. 5. DNA
    separated into chromosomes. of
    chromosomes dependent on the
    species.
  • 6. Reproduce - 6.
    Reproduction Binary
    fission. .

15
Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic
16
Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
17
  • Prokaryotes can be divided into two major groups.
  • 1. (true bacteria)
  • 2. - grow in hostile
    environments, but little micorbiolgical
    importance.
  • Microbial world
  • study of all
    prokaryotes unicellular eukaryotes.
  • Kingdom Monerans and Archaebacteria
  • - Algae Protozoans
  • Reproduction sexual asexual
  • - smaller than
    protozoans are the major cause of diseases.
  • Cyanobacteria - photosynthesis
  • - large
    multicellular eukaryote worms (flat round).

18
Domains
19
  • - filamentous
    unicellular eukaryotic cells. Some cause
    diseases.
  • - 1 cell fungus,
    budding spores, breads alcoholic beverages, few
    produce human diseases.
  • - Multicellular,
    asexual sexual spores, flavor fine cheeses, few
    produce human diseases.
  • Infectious Agents
  • - Smallest known
    disease agent.
  • DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat.
    Bacteriophages - infect bacteria.
  • - small piece of RNA
    that does not have a protein coat.
  • - Proteins without
    DNA or RNA.

20
Microbial world
21
Microbial world
22
Microbial world
23
Cell Size
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