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The New Imperialism

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The New Imperialism 10.4.1: Describe the rise of industrial economies and their link to imperialism and colonialism (e.g., the role played by national security and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The New Imperialism


1
The New Imperialism
  • 10.4.1 Describe the rise of industrial economies
    and their link to imperialism and colonialism
    (e.g., the role played by national security and
    strategic advantage moral issues raised by the
    search for national hegemony, Social Darwinism,
    and the missionary impulse material issues such
    as land, resources, and technology.

2
What was it?
  • According to historian John Lowe, imperialism
    involved the assertion of European political
    influence or control over other territories,
    especially in Africa and Asia, involving some
    measure economic exploitation.

3
Who were the important imperial powers?
  • Great Britain was the strongest naval power and
    had troops in six continents
  • France also had troops scattered around the
    globe, but had much less territory than Britain.
  • Others the United States (Mexico, Puerto Rico,
    Cuba, the Philipines Hawaii, and Panama) Russia
    (central Asia) Germany and Italy (minor holdings
    in Africa) Portugal (small holdings Africa and
    Asia) Japan (involved in China, North Korea, and
    Pacific Islands) Netherlands (small holdings in
    South America and Asia)

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8
When did it happen?
  • In the late 1800s especially the last quarter of
    that century
  • Some argue that different forms of imperialism
    continue today

9
Why did it happen?
  • The very diversity of the empires of the great
    powers in itself suggests that a multi-causal
    explanation of imperialism is more appropriate
    than a reliance on simple universal economic
    forces.

10
Why did it happen?
  • Economic Forces
  • New Imperialism started after the industrial
    revolution and was both promoted and aided by its
    development.
  • The need for raw materials that were not
    available domestically
  • The need for new markets to sell industrial
    products
  • The industrial revolution also played a major
    role in the era of new imperialism by providing
    what one historian has called the tools of
    empire steam boats, quinine (a remedy for
    malaria) the Gatling and the maxim gun (machine
    guns) breechloader rifles telegraph cable.

11
Why did it happen?
  • Social-Darwinism
  • Based Charles Darwins ideas about evolution
    presented in his book On the Origin of Species
    (1859)
  • Provided the rational of survival of the
    fittest and might makes right
  • The simplistic concept of survival of the
    fittest could be used to justify the right of
    superior races to lord it over indigenous
    societies in Africa and Asia. Similarly, the
    application of pseudo-Darwinist ideas to
    relations between nations called for policies
    which served the struggle for existence.

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13
Why did it happen?
  • White Mans Burden
  • This title from a Rudyard Kipling poem refers to
    the duty of white men to spread civilization to
    new-caught sullen peoples, half-devil, and
    half-child.

14
Why did it happen?
  • Irrational Nationalism
  • By relating imperial expansion to great power
    rivalries, historians have emphasized the role
    of prestige in an era when colonial empires came
    to be regarded as status symbols.

15
Why did it happen?
  • Strategic and National Interests
  • Concern of governments for secure trading routes
    like those through the Suez Canal and around the
    Cape of Good Hope
  • Concerns over naval power, sea lanes, and ports
  • Alfred Thayer Mahans The Influence of Seapower
    Upon History (1890) argued that the greatness of
    empires rest on the potency of their seapower.
  • Trading posts and Free Trade
  • Open Door Policy in China

16
Why did it happen?
  • Missionaries
  • Only six major missionary societies operated in
    Africa by 1800, mostly in coastal regions.
  • By 1880, there were thirty-seven, many of which
    had penetrated deep into the continent.
  • They came to fight against slavery and to save
    souls.
  • Besides preaching the gospel, converting people
    to Christianity, and translating the Bible into
    various African languages, these missionary
    societies promoted agriculture taught such
    skills as carpentry, printing, and tailoring and
    promoted trade, literacy, and Western education.

17
Why did it happen?
  • Missionaries
  • Helped lay the groundwork for later imperialism
    by mapping inner portions of the continent,
    establishing connections, and promoting more
    contact.
  • David Livingstone
  • Explored southern Africa
  • First European to traverse the continent.
  • After Livingstone fell ill with Malaria, he lost
    contact with the outside world fore several year,
    and Henry Morton Stanley, and explorer and
    newspaper writer, was sent to find him.

18
Why did it happen?
  • Missionaries
  • The greatest social impact on the missionary
    revolution by 1880 was the further
    stratification of African societies into a
    relatively small Christian educated elite.

19
Why did it happen?
  • Adventure
  • For many people who enlisted in armies,
    imperialism was about adventure and proving ones
    masculinity.

20
Why does it matter?
  • The extraction of material wealth from Africa
    following the previous extraction of human beings
    may help to explain the current struggles in
    Africa.
  • Imperial rivalries created tensions between
    European powers and may explain the beginning of
    the First World War.
  • Anti-imperialist movements led to military
    struggles for liberation in the twentieth century
    (Vietnam and India for example).
  • Destabilization continental populations

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