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Global wind patterns

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Global wind patterns http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/wwhlpr/hurricane_globalwinds.rxml?hret=/indexlist.rxml – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global wind patterns


1
Global wind patterns
http//ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/wwhlpr/hurricane
_globalwinds.rxml?hret/indexlist.rxml
2
Hurricane Interior
3
Typical content of the atmosphere (ppm by volume
near the surface)
  • N2 780,900
  • O2 209,400
  • H2O variable (lt20,000)
  • Argon 9,300
  • CO2 375
  • Neon 16
  • Helium 5.2
  • Krypton 1
  • Xenon 0.08
  • Methane 1.0-1.2
  • NO 0.5
  • H2 0.5
  • NO2 0.02
  • O3 0.01-0.04
  • Sox 0.002

4
Atmospheric structure
T up to 1500 K due to intense solar radiation
Chemical composition changes to be richer in
lighter gases, gravitational stratification
almost no H2O or ozone
T relatively constant, increasing to About 200K
at the stratopause
Average dT/dh -6 K/km The region of weather!
http//www.mardiros.net/atmosphere/atmosphere_stru
cture.html
5
Common Pollutants
Sometimes called TSP
Total volume in the US is about 180Mton/yr about
3.3lb/day.person Note this is about HALF of what
it was 40 years ago even though the
population and economy have grown substantially
6
Typical Health effects time and concentration
matter
7
Smoke stacks, the first solution
http//photovault.com/Link/Industry/IndustrySmokes
tacks.html
8
Aerosols
http//earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Aerosols/

9
Temperature Inversion
In extreme cases the temperature can actually
increase with height. The inversion inhibits
convection and as a result, pollutants can
concentrate near the ground.
http//www.weatherquestions.com/What_is_a_temperat
ure_inversion.htm
10
Temperature Inversion
http//daphne.palomar.edu/calenvironment/smog.htm
11
Acid rain patterns in the US
NOTE neutral water is pH7 the lower the
number, the stronger the acid.
12
Schanghai Dec. 1993
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ImageSha1993_smog_wk
pd.jpg
13
(No Transcript)
14
Typical TRACE Impurities in Coal (does not
include sulphur, which is not a trace impurity!)
  • How much lead, mercury, and uranium is emitted
    per year in the US by power plants burning this
    stuff?

15
http//www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec1_3.p
df
16
Air pollution profile for typical cities
17
KH fig 8.13
18
See also an IU article On coal and limestone
http//www.indiana.edu/rcapub/v20n3/p9.html
http//www.dukepower.com/environment/air/scrubber_
diagram.pdf
19
Pollution control devices Power plant
20
http//auto.howstuffworks.com/catalytic-converter.
htm
21
Global warming What is the controversy?
http//www.junkscience.com/GMT/index.htm
Interesting NPR story on recently rejected coal
power plant in Kansas http//www.npr.org/templates
/story/story.php?storyId15546026
22
http//eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/EDDOCS/images/Erb/comp
onents2.gif
23
Carbon Cycle
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_cycle
24
Spectrum of Solar radiation at the Earths surface
HK fig 6.2
Absorption bands due to gasses like CO2, H2O, CH4
etc. These are the so-called green-house gasses.
25
http//www.whrc.org/carbon/ (Woods Hole
Research Center)
26
CO2 Concentrations and Temperature Change
27
Carbon Cycle
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_cycle
28
Sediments and sedimentary Rocks could account for
another 6x107 Petagrams! (www.physicalgeography.
net/9r.html)
http//www.whrc.org/carbon/ (Woods Hole
Research Center)
29
Ozone in the atmosphere good and bad
10 ppm ozone at 50 km compared to 40 ppb ozone
in the troposphere!
http//www.mardiros.net/atmosphere/atmosphere_stru
cture.html
30
Ozone levels at Halley Bay station (Antarctica)
http//www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/tour/part2.html
31
TOMS Satellite movie (Total Ozone Mapping
Spectrometer)
http//www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/tour/anim_toms.html
32
TOMS Satellite movie (Total Ozone Mapping
Spectrometer)
http//www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/tour/part2.html
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