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Aim: To what extent were early river valley civilizations similar?

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Title: Aim: To what extent were early river valley civilizations similar?


1
Aim To what extent were early river valley
civilizations similar?
Vocabulary Fertile Crescent, ziggurat,
Cuneiform, irrigation, hieroglyphics, Pyramids
2
The characteristics of a civilization
  • A) Social
  • 1) Religion
  • 2) Writing
  • 3) Status -
  • B) Economic
  • 1) Trade
  • 2) Jobs
  • C) Political
  • 1) Government -
  • 2) Law -

3
Identify the major Early River Valley
Civilizations
http//web.syr.edu/clmitche/River.htm
4
River Valley Empires (Political)3200 BC - AD 400
  • Mesopotamian Empires 2340 BCE-1600 BCE
    (City-States dominate)
  • 2340 BCE Sargon Akkad takes Sumer, establishing
    the first empire.
  • c. 2125-2027 BCE The Third Dynasty of Ur
  • 1900-1600 BCE The First Babylonian Empire
  • c. 1900 BCE Ammorites establish Babylon
  • 1792-1750 BCE Reign of Hammurabi
  • c. 1600 BCE Invasions by Hittites and Kassites
    destroys the empire
  • Egyptian Civilization 3100 BCE - 332 BCE (Most
    unified River Civilization)
  • 3100-2686 BCE Archaic Period
  • 2686-2181 BCE Old Kingdom
  • 1991-1636 BCE Middle Kingdom
  • 1578-1085 BCE New Kingdom
  • 1085-332 BCE Late Dynastic Period
  • 332 BC Alexander the Great conquers Egypt
  • Harappan Civilization 2600 -1300 BC
  • 2600-2500 BC Harappan Civilization is at its
    height
  • 2000-1900 BC Harappan Civilization collapses
  • c. 1300 BC Aryans migrate into the Indus Valley
    through Khyber Pass
  • c. 1000 BC Aryan migrate into the Ganges Valley

http//www.thenagain.info/WebChron/World/RiverVall
ey.html
5
Is writing an important aspect of a civilization?
  • Sumer- Cuneiform
  • -1500 BCE Phoenician Alphabet diffused
  • Egypt- Hieroglyphics
  • Indus River Valley- Cuneiform Diffused
  • China- Chinese Symbols

6
  In Sumer, the original writing was pictographic ("picture writing") individual words were represented by crude pictorial symbols that resembled in some way the object being represented, as in the Sumerian word for king, lu-gal
The Akkadians
The first symbol pictures "gal," or "great," and the second pictures "lu," or "man." Eventually, this pictorial writing developed into a more abstract series of wedges and hooks. These wedges and hooks are the original cuneiform.
http//wsu.edu/dee/GLOSSARY/CUNEI.HTM
7
Can you solve this ancient Sumerian riddle?
"A house...one enters itblind,one leaves
itseeing."
http//www.upenn.edu/museum/Games/sumerianTshirt.h
tml
8
Hieroglyphics
Pbs.org
9
Harappan Seals
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Valley_Civiliza
tionScience
10
Chinese Writing (Qin)
  • An imperial decree from Chinese Emperor Qin Shi
    Huangdi, this plaque orders the standardization
    of national units of measurement, currency, and
    writing. Until the Qin dynasty, Chinese writing
    varied from region to region, but the adoption of
    a universal standard enabled the Chinese people
    to communicate across regional boundaries,
    despite many differences in spoken language.

encarta
11
SUMER
SOCIAL STRUCTURE
EGYPT
COMPARING SOCIAL STRUCTURES BASED ON THE
FOLLOWING TWO DIAGRAMS, COMPARE THE SOCIAL
STRUCTURE OF ANCIENT EGYPT AND SUMER.
12
Architecture
What can we learn about a civilization from its
architecture?
13
Ziggurat
Q Why were ziggurats built in Sumer?
http//www.usfca.edu/westciv/Ziggurat.html
Google images
14
Pyramids
Q What purpose did the pyramids serve?
15
Structures in the Indus River Valley Civilization
  • Mohenjo-Daro had planned city streets and
    buildings. The settlement was thought to house
    roughly 5,000 people, and had houses, a granary
    (stores grain), baths, assembly halls and towers.
    The city was divided into two parts, the Citadel
    included an elaborate tank or bath created with
    fine quality brickwork and drains this was
    surrounded by a veranda. Also located here was a
    giant granary, a large residential structure, and
    at least two aisled assembly halls. To the east
    of the citadel was the lower city, laid out in a
    grid pattern. The streets were straight, and were
    drained to keep the area sanitary. The people of
    the city used very little stone in their
    construction. They used two types of bricks - mud
    bricks, and wood bricks, which were created by
    burning wood. They used timber to create the flat
    roofs of their buildings there are brick
    stairways leading to the roofs of many houses.
    Some houses were small, and others were larger
    with interior courtyards. Most had small
    bathrooms. Potters kilns, dyers vats, as well
    as metalworking, bead making, and shell-working
    shops have all been discovered. The people were
    good at irrigation and flood control. However,
    when the Indus River changed its course around
    3700 years ago, the civilization died.

http//www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/archaeology/sites/midd
le_east/mohenjo_daro.html
16
http//www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/archaeology/sites/midd
le_east/mohenjo_daro.html
17
Early Chinese Bronze Vessels
Shang Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
http//acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/phalsall/images
/qin-brn1.jpg
18
COMPARING CODES OF LAWThe Code of Hammurabi
(1750 BC)
  •  If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon
    him, but he can not prove it, then he that
    ensnared him shall be put to death.
  •  If any one is committing a robbery and is
    caught, then he shall be put to death.
  •  If a son strike his father, his hands shall be
    hewn off.
  •  If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye
    shall be put out. An eye for an eye
  • Q Do you believe that the Code of Hammurabi is
    fair?

http//www.wsu.edu/dee/MESO/CODE.HTM
19
  • If a man strike a free-born woman so that she
    lose her unborn child, he shall pay ten shekels
    for her loss.
  • If the woman die, his daughter shall be put to
    death.
  • If he strike the maid-servant of a man, and she
    lose her child, he shall pay two shekels in
    money.
  • If this maid-servant die, he shall pay one-third
    of a mina.
  • Q How is the Code of Hammurabi applied to
    different classes?

http//www.wsu.edu/dee/MESO/CODE.HTM
20
http//www.touregypt.net/featurestories/peasant.ht
m
21
Q Compare the treatment of people in different
classes under the Code of Hammurabi and ancient
Egyptian law.
22
Writing Assignment
  • Using your homework assignments and the material
    we have learned in class write two paragraphs on
    the following
  • Compare two early river civilizations and explain
    how they were similar (use two examples).
  • Compare two early river civilizations and explain
    how they were different (use two examples).
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