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Principles of Telecommunications Technology

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Principles of Telecommunications Technology Chapter 2 Objectives In this chapter, you will learn to: Describe the principles of electricity that underlie all ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Principles of Telecommunications Technology


1
Principles of Telecommunications Technology
  • Chapter 2

2
Objectives
  • In this chapter, you will learn to
  • Describe the principles of electricity that
    underlie all telecommunications signaling
  • Explain the concepts of current and voltage as
    they apply to telecommunications technology
  • Describe the components on an integrated circuit
  • Explain the difference between analog and digital
    transmission
  • Use binary encoding to represent decimal numbers
  • Describe various electricity and data
    transmission measurements

3
Atomic Charges
  • Charge - the characteristic of a material that
    enables it to exert force on another material.
  • Neutrons - found at the center of an atom,
    possess no charge and are said to be neutral.
  • Protons - found at the center of an atom along
    with neutrons, carry a positive charge.
  • Electrons - orbit the center of an atom and carry
    a negative charge

4
Atomic Charges
5
Static Electricity
  • Static electricity - the release of an
    accumulated charge in some material or object.
  • Because the charges inherent in electrons and
    protons are bound to balance each other through
    static electricity, these charges are also called
    electrostatic charges.

6
Electric Current
  • Electric current - the controlled movement of an
    electrical charge (or electrons) along the atoms
    of a conductor.
  • Circuit - a closed connection between an electric
    source (such as a battery) and a load (such as a
    lamp) over which current may flow.
  • Signal - occurs when current manipulated to
    transmit information.

7
Electric Current
  • Voltage - the pressure that the electric current
    exerts on its conductor is known. It is commonly
    equated to the strength of the electric current,
    and is measured in volts
  • Amperes - the amount of current (or charge
    flowing through a wire each second ) is measured
    in amperes, abbreviated as amps.
  • Resistance - a materials opposition to electric
    current.

8
Electric Current
9
Conductors and Insulators
  • Conductor - a material over which electric
    current readily flows.
  • Grounding - the use of a conductor (such as a
    wire) to divert unused or potentially harmful
    charges to an insulator, where they will be
    stopped or absorbed.
  • Insulators - materials that do not allow electric
    current to flow easily.
  • Semiconductor - conducts electricity better than
    an insulator, but not as well as a conductor.

10
Conductors and Insulators
11
Resistance
12
Calculating Voltage, Amps, and Resistance with
Ohms Law
13
Direct and Alternating Current
  • Direct current (DC) - an electrical charge flows
    steadily in one direction over the conductor.

14
Direct and Alternating Current
  • Alternating current (AC) - the electrical charge
    flows in one direction first, then in the
    opposite direction, then back in the first
    direction, and so on, in an alternating fashion
    over the conductor.

15
Direct and Alternating Current
16
Direct and Alternating Current
17
Capacitance
  • The ability for an electric circuit or component
    to accumulate or store a charge.
  • Capacitance is measured in Farads (abbreviated as
    F), a unit named after English chemist and
    physicist Michael Faraday, who experimented with
    electricity in the early 1800s.
  • Capacitor - a device that stores electrical
    charge (as the tank stores water).

18
Capacitance
19
Capacitance
20
Capacitance
21
Capacitance
22
Inductance
23
Inductance
24
Inductance
25
Inductance
26
Inductance
27
Inductance
28
Electrical Power
29
Electrical Power
30
Measuring Electricity
31
Measuring Electricity
32
Measuring Electricity
33
Passive Electronic Devices
  • Passive device - a component that contributes no
    power gain to a circuit.
  • Resistor - a component inserted into a circuit to
    provide a specific amount of resistance

34
Diodes
35
Diodes
Diode
LED
36
Transistors
NPN Transistor
PNP Transistor
37
Integrated Circuits
  • Circuits that combine the conductor and the
    attached components of a circuit in one small
    unit.

38
Analog Transmission
  • Analog - electromagnetic signals that
    continuously vary in their strength and speed.

39
Analog Signal
40
Digital Transmission
  • Digital Signal
  • Individual pulses of voltage

1
1
Volts
0
0
Time
41
Transmission Flaws
  • Noise - unwanted interference from external
    sources, which can degrade or distort a signal.
  • Attenuation - the loss of a signals strength as
    it travels away from its source.
  • Amplifier - an electronic device that increases
    the voltage, or power, of the signals.
  • Regeneration - when digital signals are repeated,
    they are actually retransmitted in their
    original, pure form, without any noise.
  • Repeater - a device that regenerates a digital
    signal.

42
Transmission Flaws
43
Transmission Flaws
44
Encoding and the Numbering System
  • Encoding - the process of modifying data so that
    it can be interpreted by the receiver.
  • Methods for encoding data include
  • The Decimal System
  • The Binary System http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bin
    ary_numeral_system
  • Hexadecimal System http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/He
    xadecimal
  • EBCDIC (8bit)
  • ASCII (8 bit)
  • UNICODE (16 bit)

45
Measuring Data
46
Throughput and Bandwidth
  • Throughput - the amount of data that a
    communications channel can carry during a given
    period of time.
  • The physical nature of every communications
    channel determines its potential throughput.
  • Bandwidth - a measure of the difference between
    the highest and lowest frequencies that a media
    can transmit.

47
Summary
  • Electricity may exist as either static
    electricity, the imbalance of charges, or as
    current electricity, the flow of charge along a
    conductor.
  • The three main characteristics of a circuit are
    voltage, current, and resistance. If two of these
    characteristics are known, the third can be
    calculated using Ohms Law.
  • Electronic devices may be active or passive.
    Examples of passive devices are capacitors and
    inductors. Examples of active devices are
    transistors and diodes.
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