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R . F . I . D .


R . F . I . D . Rescuing Firefighters in Distress Team Ganz: Jonathan Bruso Michael Carney Daniel Fortin James Schafer – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: R . F . I . D .

  • R . F . I . D .
  • Rescuing Firefighters in Distress

Team Ganz Jonathan Bruso Michael Carney
Daniel Fortin James Schafer
Background and Motivation
  • Firefighters have an enormous task and endanger
    their life when going into burning buildings
  • Most of the time they have never been in the
  • Visibility skewed by smoke
  • There is nothing keeping track of where a
    firefighter is
  • Trapped and needs help
  • Lost in building
  • A device that can track firefighters in a
    building could aid in directing as well as
    finding firefighters in a building

Background and Motivation
  • Many firefighter have perished after becoming
    lost or unconscious in a burning building.
  • Worcester, MA 1999
  • Six firefighters were killed after becoming lost
    in a six story building while trying to save
    homeless inhabitants.
  • Bronx, NY 2006
  • One firefighter killed and three seriously
    injured when roof of building collapsed on them.
  • Took a significant amount of time to locate their
    distress signals.
  • Charleston, SC 2007
  • Nine firefighters killed in a Sofa Store blaze.
  • They became trapped when part of the building
    collapsed and they could not be located.

  • Lives would be saved if there is a way to track a
    firefighters location inside a building

Person in build with question mark over head
Current Technologies
  • On Site Emergency Resource Tracking (OnSite ERT)
  • Firefighters drop boxes in and around building
  • Firefighter are equipped with a monitoring
  • PC accessible interface for commander.

OnSite ERT Pros Cons
  • Pros
  • Gives an GUI display of the incident and personal
    on hand
  • Can track firefighters location and vitals
  • Gives a well documented time-stamped information
    on what occurred at the incident
  • Cons
  • Uses GPS and safelight databases (subscription
  • Suitcase unit is expensive
  • Does not give a view of the incident inside the

System Requirements
  • Has to be able to track firefighters in the
  • Show firefighters path over time
  • Alert Incident Commander (IC) if firefighter has
    not moved for fixed period of time
  • Warn IC if firefighter is moving out of the Tag
  • Store these locations in a database
  • Dynamically display firefighters position on a
    visual blueprint of the building
  • Critical System, must be able to detect and
    recover from error quickly
  • User Friendly

Idea 1
  • Cons
  • Scanners have a high cost
  • 700
  • Big Building
  • Must be used sparsely
  • Loss of Scanner means loss of precision
  • Digital Representation with Scanners

Idea 2
  • Pros
  • Tags have low cost
  • 18
  • Decreased scalability cost
  • Increased precision
  • Loss of a Tag does not entail critical error
  • Mobile scanner is less prone to destruction
  • Digital Representation with Tags

System Block Diagram
The basic User Interface (UI) Design
The basic User Interface (UI) Design
  • Locations Displayed on pre-loaded blueprint
  • Traveled paths can be viewed
  • Incident Commander (IC) can relay positional
    information via radio

UI With Path Selected
How is location determined?
  • Trilateration is used to determine the position
    based on simultaneous length measurements from
    three known sites (Nodes A, B and C)
  • The point where the three circles intersect is
    the desired coordinate
  • More circles could be used to reduce error

Signal Strength to Distance conversion
  • Radio waves diminish logarithmically with
  • Tag distance (d) may be calculated as a function
  • Signal strength (sT)
  • Carrier frequency (fc)
  • Signal strength exponent (n)
  • sT 20log(fc) 10nlog(d) 28
  • Equation from Retscher, Fu, www.http//www.mycoord
  • ITU Indoor Location Model

Location of tag from Trilateration
  • Algorithm
  • Signal strength gives distances
  • Distances give equations for three spheres
  • Spheres can be equated to find location of reader
  • Sources of error
  • Walls
  • Multiple floors
  • Wave interference

Math behind Trilateration
  • Trilateration can be expressed as the problem of
    finding the intersection of three spheres.

Equation from Thomas, Ros, http//ieeexplore.iee
  • Note that the solution depends on the chosen
    reference frame.
  • Usually one of the nodes is placed at the origin
    to simplify the calculations

Dealing with error
  • Error solutions
  • Calibrate signal strength variation before entry
    into building
  • Calibrate variation for different building
  • Use ITU Indoor Calibration Model

Additional Tag Applications
  • Distress Tags
  • Located in hot spots across building where those
    in distress can obtain in order to be rescued
  • Pros
  • Can give a general location of person in distress
  • Finding a person in distress would be much faster
    and more direct
  • Cons
  • The tags could be false alarms
  • Person holding tag could be moving
  • Currently being researched

Additional Tag Possibilities cont..
  • Point of Interest tags (PoI)
  • Carried by firefighters and can be thrown down to
    point out a particular point of interest or a
    certain path
  • Pros
  • Important points in a building can be highlighted
  • A trail could be left to help guide firefighters
    to safety
  • Cons
  • Tags will need to be carried in a signal blocking
    pouch or they will interfere with the scanners
  • Currently undergoing research

Database Functionality
  • Stores incoming point data of each fireman within
    the building
  • Stores pre-existing data of stationary RFID tags
  • Stores blueprints/building information
  • Must be fast and reliable
  • Due to budget constraint a laptop will be used in
    place of a real server

General Attribute Tables
  • These tables contain the pre-instantiated general
    attributes of the Active tags and Scanners

Tag ID Gen. Loc X-cord Y-cord
0x0001 Hallway 100 245
0x0002 Kitchen 455 103
0x0003 Office 009 102 250
General Attribute Table Makeup
FF ID Name Signal Str
0x0001 Ortiz .86
0x0002 Lowell .56
Fireman Attribute Table
Collected Positioning Table
  • A general layout of the positioning table below
  • This table lists all tags positions given with
    respect to time
  • Updated frequently with new coordinates
  • Various Queries can be used to get certain tags,
    paths, floors, ect

FF ID X-Cord Y-Cord Time
0x013 100 245 155906
0x017 455 103 155907
0x013 102 250 155909
0x014 52 600 155911
0x013 99 256 155913
  • Trilateration Algorithm
  • Formula seems straight forward
  • Indoor scenario causes problems interference and
    RF propagation
  • Errors accumulate fast.
  • Correlating the signal strength to distance
  • Position Calibration

Challenges cont
  • Incident Commander GUI
  • Must display in Real Time
  • On the fly path animation and image generation is
  • Using Pre-Inputted Blueprint
  • Displaying firefighters relative tag position
    to absolute blueprint position.
  • Must use GPS to provide this association
  • Coordinating blueprint with error checking
  • Making sure firefighter does not walk through

Proposed MDR Deliverables
  • Incident Commander GUI
  • Use mock data inside database to simulate GUI
  • Able to see location of Firefighter on blueprint
  • Ability to show the total path traveled (with
  • RFID Reader and Tags
  • Purchase
  • Research SDK and Trilateration Algorithms
  • Begin experimentation with point location and
    error correction

Division of Labor
  • Jon Bruso
  • Interactive Incident Commander GUI, blueprint
    generation software, on the fly image generation
  • Mike Carney
  • Trilateration Algorithm, On the fly
    path(animation) generation
  • Dan Fortin
  • Purchase RFID equipment, GPS location
    integration, and Trilateration Algorithm
  • James Schafer
  • Database creation and management, coordinating
    relative RFID positions with blueprint

Final Deliverables
  • Design documents and specifications
  • Blueprint generation software
  • Incident Commander GUI
  • Path and Point Display
  • With timestamps
  • Firefighters signal strength warning
  • Ability to track multiple Firefighters
  • Demonstrate tracking a RFID reader throughout a
    location on campus.
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