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U.S. Indian Policy


U.S. Indian Policy 1794 - 1971 Anthony Wayne, Battle of Fallen Timbers and Treaty of Greenville Plains Indian Wars On November 29, 1864, soldiers from the US military ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: U.S. Indian Policy

U.S. Indian Policy
  • 1794 - 1971

Anthony Wayne, Battle of Fallen Timbers and
Treaty of Greenville
Indians cede much of southern Ohio and Indiana
to the U.S. Government
Tippecanoe, W.H. Harrison and Tecumseh
Indian resistance in the Ohio Valley ends with
the defeat of Tecumsehs Confederation during the
War of 1812.
Black Hawk Wars 1832
  • Sauk and Fox Indians were
  • removed from Illinois and Wisconsin.
  • Capt. Abraham Lincoln served in the Illinois
    militia. This was his only war experience before
    leading the country during the Civil War.

Worcester v. Georgia and the Trail of Tears
Reservation Policy and the Bureau of Indian
Affairs (BIA)
Plains Indian Wars
  • On November 29, 1864, soldiers from the US
    military attacked a peaceful encampment of
    Cheyenne and Arapaho along Sand Creek. Over 150
    Indians were killed in the attack, most of whom
    were women, children, or elderly. The Sand Creek
    Massacre profoundly influenced US-Indian
    relations and the structure of the Cheyenne and
    Arapaho tribes

Treaty of Fort Laramie
  • 1868 Treaty Land orange
  • 1876 after Black Hills were taken
  • from the Sioux red
  • current Sioux reservation - brown

Battle of Little Bighorn
George A Custer
Sitting Bull
Nez Perce and Chief Joseph
I will fight No More, Forever
Wounded Knee (1890) - Last major conflict of the
Indian Wars
Artist Frederick Remington recreated the opening
moments of the massacre based on soldiers'
A Century of Dishonor, Helen Hunt Jackson
As expressed in her devastating criticisms of
federal Indian policy and white-Indian relations
in A Century of Dishonor and the novel Ramona,
Helen Hunt Jackson was one of the most
influential defenders of Native American rights
in late 19th-century America. Her activism
helped to lead the way for passage of the Dawes
Act in 1887.
1830-1885 Writer, activist for Native Americans
Dawes Act (Indian Reform)
  • Attempt to assimilate natives into white society
  • Divided reservation lands into 160 acre plots of
    farm or grazing land
  • Much of land ended up in whites hands
  • Indians lacked the tools and knowledge to farm
  • Much of land was not suitable for farming
  • Land ownership was foreign to Indian concept of
    communal land and resource use
  • Tribal councils were replaced by American
    citizenship and voting rights
  • By 1970, Indians are poorest, least educated,
    shortest lifespan, highest infant mortality rates
    of any minority in America

Indian Reorganization Act 1934 (Indian New Deal)
  • Legislation passed in 1934 in an attempt to
    secure new rights for Native Americans on
    reservations. Its main provisions were to restore
    to Native Americans management of their assets
    (mostly land) to prevent further depletion of
    reservation resources to build a sound economic
    foundation for the people of the reservations
    and to return to the Native Americans local
    self-government on a tribal basis.

Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA)
  • 12 Regional Native Corporations (CIRI)
  • 200 Village Corporations
  • One time 1 billion payout
  • 40 million acres given to native corporations
    including land and mineral resources
  • All natives given stock in both regional and
    village corporations
  • No stock sales until 1971
  • Brazil and Australia implemented similar laws to
    deal with their indigenous peoples

(No Transcript)
North America
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