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AAUS Scientific Diving History and Regulations

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Title: AAUS Scientific Diving History and Regulations


1
AAUS Scientific Diving History and Regulations
2
Objectives
  • Upon completion of this module, the participant
    will be able to
  • Define scientific diving
  • Outline the History of Scientific Diving and the
    exemption to OSHA commercial diving standards
  • Identify the mission, purposes and goals of AAUS

3
Objectives
  • Upon completion of this module, the participant
    will be able to
  • Outline the operational control mechanism within
    Scientific Diving
  • Discuss policies, procedures, and requirements
    detailed in AAUS Scientific Diving Standards

4
Scientific Diving
  • Scientific diving is defined (29 CFR 1910.402) as
    diving performed solely as a necessary part of a
    scientific, research, or educational activity by
    employees whose sole purpose for diving is to
    perform scientific research tasks

5
History of the Scientific Diving Exemption
  • In 1982, OSHA exempted scientific diving from
    commercial diving regulations (29 CFR Part 1910,
    Subpart T) under certain conditions which are
    outlined below
  • The final guidelines for the exemption became
    effective in 1985 (Federal Register, Vol. 50, No.
    6, p. 1046)

6
History of the Scientific Diving Exemption
  • 1975 - Petition filed by United Brotherhood of
    Carpenters and Joiners of America AFL-CIO
  • Urged an emergency temporary standard (ETS) be
    issued with respect to diving operations
  • ETS issued on June 15, 1976 to be effective July
    15, 1976

7
History of the Scientific Diving Exemption
  • Challenged in U S Court of Appeals by several
    diving contractors
  • ETS withdrawn in November 1976 and permanent
    standard was formulated
  • Final Standard for Commercial Diving became
    effective October 20, 1977
  • Scientific diving was not exempted

8
History of the Scientific Diving Exemption
  • American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS)
    was formed to petition OSHA for an exemption
  • Submitted arguments for ANPR on October 15, 1979
  • Self-regulation
  • Consensual standard for over 20 years
  • Low accident incidence rate
  • Final Ruling granting exemption effective
    November 28, 1982

9
Scientific Diving Exemption29CFR 1910.401(2)(iv)
  • OSHA exempted from commercial diving regulations
    any diving operation defined as scientific diving
    and which is under the direction and control of a
    diving program containing at least the following
    elements

10
Scientific Diving Exemption29CFR 1910.401(2)(iv)
  • A diving safety manual which includes at a
    minimum Procedures covering all diving
    operations specific to the program including
    procedures for emergency care, recompression and
    evacuation and the criteria for diver training
    and certification

11
Scientific Diving Exemption29CFR 1910.401(2)(iv)
  • Diving control (safety) board, with the majority
    of its members being active scientific divers,
    which shall at a minimum have the authority to
  • approve and monitor diving projects, review and
    revise the diving safety manual, assure
    compliance with the manual, certify the depths to
    which a diver has been trained, take disciplinary
    action for unsafe practices, and assure adherence
    to the buddy system (a diver is accompanied by
    and is in continuous contact with another diver
    in the water) for scuba diving

12
29CFR 1910.401(2)(iv) Appendix B to Subpart T
  • OSHA has granted an exemption for scientific
    diving from commercial diving regulations under
    the following guidelines (Appendix B to Subpart
    T)
  • The Diving Control Board consists of a majority
    of active scientific divers and has autonomous
    and absolute authority over the scientific diving
    program's operation

13
29CFR 1910.401(2)(iv) Appendix B to Subpart T
  • The purpose of the project using scientific
    diving is the advancement of science therefore,
    information and data resulting from the project
    are non-proprietary
  • The tasks of a scientific diver are those of an
    observer and data gatherer
  • Construction and trouble-shooting tasks
    traditionally associated with commercial diving
    are not included within scientific diving

14
29CFR 1910.401(2)(iv) Appendix B to Subpart T
  • Scientific divers, based on the nature of their
    activities, must use scientific expertise in
    studying the underwater environment and
    therefore, are scientists or scientists-in-trainin
    g

15
The American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS)
16
AAUS
  • Incorporated in California in 1983
  • Active since before the OSHA exemption of 1982
  • Currently over 100 organizational members
  • Recognized by OSHA as the scientific diving
    standard setting organization

17
AAUS
  • 101 Bienville Blvd
  • Dauphin Island, AL 36528
  • 251-861-7504 Phone
  • Email aaus_at_disl.org
  • Web Address http//www.aaus.org

18
AAUS
  • AAUS Organizational Members, or OM(s), include
    Universities, Marine Labs, Museums, and others
    involved in scientific diving activities
    throughout the United States and around the world

19
AAUS Mission Statement
  • The mission of the American Academy of Underwater
    Sciences (AAUS) is to facilitate the development
    of safe and productive scientific divers through
    education, research, advocacy, and the
    advancement of standards for scientific diving
    practices, certifications, and operations

20
AAUS Purposes and Goals
  • To develop, review and revise standards for safe
    scientific diving certification and the safe
    operation of scientific diving programs
  • To collect, review and distribute statistics
    relating to scientific diving activities and
    scientific diving incidents

21
AAUS Purposes and Goals
  • To conduct symposia and workshops to educate the
    membership and others in safe scientific diving
    programs and practices
  • To represent the scientific diving interests of
    the membership before other organizations and
    government agencies, and

22
AAUS Purposes and Goals
  • To fund research, education and development of
    safe scientific diving programs and practices

23
Research vs. ScientificDiver (Rec.)
Diver (AAUS)
  • NO STANDARDIZED INSTRUCTION
  • PRACTICAL TRAINING ONLY
  • VARIABLE NUMBER OF TRAINING DIVES
  • NO MEDICAL
  • LIFETIME CERT
  • NOT RECOGNIZED AS A PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION
  • OSHA DEFINED
  • MUST MEET AAUS TRAINING STANDARDS
  • AAUS MEDICAL REQUIRED
  • MINIMUM 100 HOURS TRAINING
  • MUST MAINTAIN CERTIFICATION STATUS
  • EMERGENCY TRAINING REQUIRED
  • RECOGNIZED AS A PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION

24
AAUS Scientific Diving Standards
25
AAUS Diving Standards
  • These standards were developed and written by the
    AAUS by compiling the policies set forth in the
    diving manuals of several university, private,
    and governmental scientific diving programs

26
AAUS Diving Standards
  • These programs share a common heritage with the
    scientific diving program at the Scripps
    Institution of Oceanography (SIO)
  • Adherence to the SIO standards has proven both
    feasible and effective in protecting the health
    and safety of scientific divers since 1954

27
Volume 1
  • Sections 1 through 6
  • Required For All
  • OM Diving Manuals

28
Section 1 General Policy
29
Purpose
  • The purpose of AAUS Scientific Diving Standards
    is to ensure that all scientific diving is
    conducted in a manner that will maximize
    protection for scientific divers from accidental
    injury and/or illness, and set forth standards
    for training and certification that will allow a
    working reciprocity between organizational members

30
Operational Control
  • OM Auspices includes any scientific diving
    operation in which an OM is connected because of
    ownership of any equipment used, locations
    selected, or relationship with the individual(s)
    concerned

31
Operational Control
  • This includes all cases involving the operations
    of employees of the OM or employees of auxiliary
    organizations, where such employees are acting
    within the scope of their employment, and
    operations of other persons who are engaged in
    scientific diving of the OM or are diving as
    members of an organization recognized by the OM

32
Operational Control
  • It is the OMs responsibility to adhere to the
    AAUS Standards
  • The administration of the local diving program
    resides with the OMs Diving Control Board (DCB)

33
Operational Control
  • Each OM is responsible for the development and
    maintenance of a scientific diving manual
    containing policies and procedures that will
    enable the OM to meet requirements for local
    environments and conditions as well as complying
    with the AAUS minimal standards

34
Operational Control
  • The regulations in the OMs Diving Manual shall
    be observed at all locations where scientific
    diving is conducted

35
Operational Control
  • The Diving Safety Officer (DSO) is responsible
    through the DCB for the conduct of the OM
    scientific diving program

36
Operational Control
  • The DSO is empowered by the DCB and guided in the
    performance of the required duties by the advice
    of the DCB, but operational responsibility for
    the conduct of the local diving program is
    retained by the DSO

37
Operational Control
  • The DCB
  • Has autonomous and absolute authority over the
    scientific diving programs operation
  • Shall approve and monitor diving projects
  • Shall review and revise the diving safety manual
  • Shall assure compliance with the diving safety
    manual

38
Operational Control
  • The DCB
  • Shall certify the depths to which a diver has
    been trained
  • Shall take disciplinary action for unsafe
    practices
  • Shall assure adherence to the buddy system for
    scuba diving

39
Operational Control
  • The DCB
  • Shall act as the official representative for the
    OM in matters concerning the scientific diving
    program
  • Shall act as a board of appeal to consider
    diver-related problems
  • Shall recommend the issue, reissue, or the
    revocation of diving certifications

40
Operational Control
  • The DCB
  • Shall recommend changes in policy and amendments
    to AAUS and the OMs diving safety manual as the
    need arises
  • Shall establish and/or approve training programs
    through which the applicants for certification
    can satisfy the requirements of the OMs diving
    safety manual
  • Shall suspend diving programs that are considered
    unsafe or unwise

41
Operational Control
  • The DCB
  • Shall establish criteria for equipment selection
    and use
  • Shall recommend new equipment or techniques
  • Shall establish and/or approve facilities for the
    inspection and maintenance of diving and
    associated equipment

42
Operational Control
  • The DCB
  • Shall ensure that the OMs air station(s) meet
    air quality standards as described in Section
    3.60 of the AAUS manual
  • Shall periodically review the DSOs performance
    and program
  • Shall sit as a board of investigation to inquire
    into the nature and cause of diving accidents or
    violations of the OMs diving safety manual

43
Operational Control
  • The Lead Diver
  • For each dive, one individual shall be designated
    as the Lead Diver
  • This individual shall be at the dive location
    during the diving operation

44
Operational Control
  • The Lead Diver is responsible for
  • Coordination with other known activities in the
    vicinity that are likely to interfere with diving
    operations
  • Ensuring all dive team members possess current
    certification and are qualified for the type of
    diving operation

45
Operational Control
  • The Lead Diver is responsible for
  • Briefing dive team members on
  • Dive objectives
  • Unusual hazards or environmental conditions
    likely to affect the safety of the diving
    operation
  • Modifications to diving or emergency procedures
    necessitated by the specific diving operation
  • Suspending diving operations if in their opinion
    conditions are not safe
  • Reporting to the DSO and DCB any physical
    problems or adverse physiological effects
    including symptoms of pressure-related injuries

46
Operational Control
  • Reciprocity and Visiting Scientific Diver
  • Two or more AAUS OMs engaged jointly in diving
    activities, or engaged jointly in the use of
    diving resources, shall designate one of the
    participating DCBs to govern the joint project

47
Operational Control
  • Reciprocity and Visiting Scientific Diver
  • A scientific diver from one OM shall apply for
    permission to dive under the auspices of another
    OM by submitting to the DSO of the host OM a
    Request for Diving Reciprocity Form (see AAUS
    Appendix 6)
  • This form must be signed by the divers home DSO
    or DCB Chair

48
Operational Control
  • Reciprocity and Visiting Scientific Diver
  • A visiting Scientific Diver may be asked to
    demonstrate their knowledge and skills for the
    planned dive
  • If the host OM denies a visiting Scientific Diver
    permission to dive, the host OM shall notify the
    visiting diver and their DCB with an explanation
    of all reasons for the denial

49
Operational Control
  • Waiver of Requirements
  • The organizational Diving Control Board may grant
    a waiver for specific requirements of training,
    examinations, depth certification, and minimal
    activity to maintain certification

50
Consequence of Violation of Regulations
  • Failure to comply with the regulations of the
    diving manual may be cause for the revocation or
    restriction of the diver's scientific diving
    certificate by action of the OM DCB

51
Section 2 Diving Regulations For Scuba (Open
Circuit, Compressed Air)
52
Introduction
  • No person shall engage in scientific diving
    operations under the auspices of the OM
    scientific diving program unless they hold a
    current certification issued pursuant to the
    provisions of this manual

53
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Dive Plans
  • Dives should be planned around the competency of
    the least experienced diver
  • Required for all scientific diving operations
  • Must be formulated by the Lead Diver prior to the
    start of a project

54
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Dive Plans Include
  • A list of participants, their qualifications and
    the type of certificate or certification held by
    each diver
  • The approximate number of proposed dives
  • The location(s) of proposed dives

55
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Dive Plans Include
  • Estimated depth(s) and bottom time(s) anticipated
  • Decompression status and repetitive dive plans,
    if required
  • Proposed work, equipment, and boats to be
    employed
  • Any hazardous conditions anticipated

56
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Dive Plans Include
  • An Emergency Plan with the following information
  • Emergency contact information for each diver
  • Nearest accessible hospital
  • Nearest operational decompression chamber
  • Available means of transport
  • Emergency contact numbers appropriate for the
    dive location

57
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Diver Responsibilities
  • Each diver shall conduct a functional check of
    his/her diving equipment in the presence of the
    diving buddy or tender enduring that their
    equipment is in proper working order and that the
    equipment is suitable for the planned diving
    operation

58
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Diver Responsibilities
  • It is the diver's responsibility and duty to
    refuse to dive if, in his/her judgment,
    conditions are unfavorable, or if he/she would be
    violating the precepts of his/her training, or of
    the OMs diving manual

59
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Diver Responsibilities
  • It is the divers responsibility to notify the
    DSO/Lead Diver/Diving Supervisor if he/she is
    unfit to safely participate in diving operations

60
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • Equipment Evaluations
  • Each diver shall on every dive have the
    capability of achieving and maintaining positive
    buoyancy
  • A divers flag shall be displayed prominently in
    areas frequented by boat traffic
  • Appropriate safety, and first aid equipment that
    is suitable for meeting project needs, and Oxygen
    will be available on site

61
Pre-Dive Procedures
  • The environmental conditions at the site will be
    evaluated

62
Diving Procedures
  • Solo Diving Prohibition
  • All diving activities shall assure adherence to
    the buddy system

63
Diving Procedures
  • Refusal to Dive
  • The decision to dive is that of the diver
  • A diver may refuse to dive, without fear of
    penalty, whenever they feel it is unsafe for them
    to make the dive
  • The ultimate responsibility for safety rests with
    the individual diver

64
Diving Procedures
  • Termination of the Dive
  • A diver will terminate the dive, without fear of
    penalty, whenever they feel it is unsafe to
    continue the dive, unless it compromises the
    safety of another diver already in the water

65
Diving Procedures
  • Termination of the Dive
  • The diver shall terminate the dive while there is
    still sufficient tank pressure to permit the
    diver to safely reach the surface, including
    decompression time, or to safely reach an
    additional air source at the decompression station

66
Diving Procedures
  • Emergencies and Deviations from Regulations
  • Any diver may deviate from the requirements of
    this standard to the extent necessary to prevent
    or minimize a situation that is likely to cause
    death, serious physical harm, or major
    environmental damage
  • Such actions require a written report be
    submitted to the OM DCB explaining circumstances
    and justifications

67
Post-Dive Procedures
  • After the completion of a dive, each diver shall
    report any physical problems, symptoms of
    decompression sickness, or equipment malfunctions

68
Flying After Diving or Ascending to Altitude
  • The minimum preflight surface interval following
    a Single No-Decompression Dive is 12 hours
  • The minimum preflight surface interval following
    Multiple Dives Per Day or Multiple Days of Diving
    is 18 hours

69
Flying After Diving or Ascending to Altitude
  • The minimum preflight surface interval following
    Dives Requiring Decompression Stops is 24 hours
  • Divers should follow the appropriate guidelines
    for preflight surface intervals before ascending
    to Altitude above 1000 feet (300 meters), unless
    the decompression procedure used has accounted
    for the increase in elevation

70
Diving Log
  • Every dive made under the auspices of an OM shall
    be logged with the OM Diving Safety Officer
  • Minimum Dive Log Information Includes
  • Date Time In/Out Location Diving Mode Diving
    Classification Gas Used Max Depths Name of
    Diver, Buddy, and Lead Diver Decompression
    Method Detailed report of any near or actual
    incidents

71
Accident / Incident Reporting
  • All diving incidents requiring recompression
    treatment, or resulting in moderate or serious
    injury, or death shall be reported to the OMs
    Diving Control Board and AAUS

72
Section 3 Diving Equipment
73
General Policy
  • All equipment shall meet standards as determined
    by the OM DSO and DCB
  • Equipment that is subjected to extreme usage
    under adverse conditions should require more
    frequent testing and maintenance
  • All equipment shall be regularly examined by the
    person using it

74
Regulators
  • Regulators will consist of a first stage, a
    primary second stage, an alternate air source
    (such as an octopus second stage or redundant air
    supply), and a submersible pressure gauge
  • The regulator must also provide a IP hose for
    connecting to a power inflator
  • Regulators to be used with a dry suit must have
    an additional port for an IP hose to connect to
    the suit inflator

75
Flotation Devices
  • Each diver shall have the capability of achieving
    and maintaining positive buoyancy
  • Buoyancy compensators, drysuits or other variable
    volume BCD shall be equipped with an exhaust
    valve
  • Divers wearing a drysuit will also wear a BCD

76
Timing Devices, Depth, and Pressure Gauge
  • Both members of the diving pair must have an
    underwater timing device, an approved depth
    indicator, and a submersible pressure gauge

77
Determination of Decompression Status
  • A set of diving tables, approved by the DCB, must
    be available at the dive location
  • Dive computers may be utilized in place of diving
    tables but only those makes and models of dive
    computers specifically approved by the DCB or
    their designee (DSO) may be used

78
Support Equipment
  • A first aid kit adequate for the diving operation
    shall be available at the dive location
  • Oxygen shall be available at the dive location
    for emergency situations

79
Support Equipment
  • A diver's flag shall be displayed prominently
    whenever diving is conducted under circumstances
    where required or where water traffic is probable

80
Air Quality Standards
  • Breathing air for scuba shall meet CGA
    (Compressed Gas Association) Grade E
    specifications

81
Section 4 Entry Level Training Requirements
82
Scope
  • This section describes training for the
    non-diving applicant, previously not certified
    for diving, and equivalency for the certified
    diver

83
Evaluations
  • Medical Examination
  • The applicant for training shall be certified to
    be medically qualified for diving by a licensed
    physician before proceeding with the training
    outlined in sections four and five
  • Details of this examination are discussed in
    section six

84
Evaluations
  • Swimming Evaluation
  • Without the use of swim aids, applicants for
    certification under AAUS standards must
  • Swim underwater for a distance of 25 yards
    without surfacing
  • Swim 400 yards in less than 12 minutes
  • Tread water for 10 minutes, or 2 minutes without
    the use of hands
  • Transport another person of equal size a distance
    of 25 yards in the water

85
Evaluations
  • Scuba Training - As a minimum in a pool or
    sheltered water, the non-scuba certified trainee
    must satisfy the DSO of their ability to
  • Clear their face mask
  • Alternate between snorkel and scuba while kicking
  • Air share as both the donor and recipient, with
    and without a face mask
  • Demonstrate understanding of underwater signs and
    signals
  • Assist and transport a passive simulated victim
    of an accident
  • Remove and replace equipment while submerged
  • Demonstrate acceptable watermanship

86
Evaluations
  • Written Examination The non-scuba certified
    trainee and persons desiring equivalency
    recognition must demonstrate knowledge of
  • Function, care, use, and maintenance of diving
    equipment
  • Physics and physiology of diving
  • Diving regulations and precautions
  • Near-shore currents and waives
  • Dangerous marine animals
  • Emergency procedures, including buoyant ascent
    and air sharing

87
Evaluations
  • Written Examination (continued)
  • Currently acceptable decompression procedures
  • Proper use of dive tables
  • Underwater communications
  • Aspects of freshwater and altitude diving
  • Hazards of breath-hold diving and ascents
  • Diving hazards
  • Cause, symptoms, treatment prevention of Near
    drowning, air embolism, CO2 excess, squeezes, O2
    poisoning, N2 narcosis, exhaustion panic,
    respiratory fatigue, motion sickness,
    hypothermia, and hypoxia/anoxia

88
Evaluations
  • Open Water Evaluation At a minimum the
    non-scuba certified trainee and persons desiring
    equivalency recognition satisfy the DSO of their
    ability to
  • Surface dive to a depth of 10 ft without scuba
  • Air sharing as both donor and receiver
  • Enter Leave water while wearing scuba gear
    (surf or vessel)

89
Evaluations
  • Open Water Evaluation (continued)
  • Kick on the surface 400 yards while wearing scuba
    gear but not breathing from scuba unit
  • Demonstrate judgment adequate for safe diving
  • Complete a simulated emergency swimming ascent
  • Clearing of mask and regulator while submerged

90
Evaluations
  • Open Water Evaluation (continued)
  • Achieve and maintain neutral buoyancy while
    submerged
  • Demonstrate techniques of self-rescue and buddy
    assist
  • Navigate underwater
  • Plan and execute a dive

91
Evaluations
  • Open Water Evaluation (continued)
  • Successfully complete 5 openwater dives for a
    minimum total time of 3 hours (11/2 hrs
    cumulative bottom time on scuba)
  • No more than 3 dives shall be made in one day

92
Section 5 Scientific Diver Certification
93
Certification Types
  • There are two scientific diver certification
    types under AAUS standards
  • Temporary Diver Permit
  • Scientific Diver Certification

94
Temporary Diver Permit
  • This permit constitutes a waiver of the
    requirements of Sec. 5 and is issued only
    following a demonstration of the required
    proficiency in diving
  • The permit is usually reserved for visiting
    scientists or personnel, including volunteers,
    not normally associated with OM programs
  • It is valid only for a limited time, as
    determined by the OM DCB

95
Temporary Diver Permit
  • This permit is not to be construed as a mechanism
    to circumvent existing standards set forth in
    this manual

96
Scientific Diver Certification
  • The scientific diver certification is a
    professional diving qualification it has no
    equivalency in the recreational diving community
  • Eligibility
  • Only persons involved with scientific diving
    under OM auspices are eligible for scientific
    diving training and certification

97
Scientific Diver Certification
  • Prerequisites
  • Application to the OM DSO
  • Medical approval
  • Issuance of a Diver-In-Training Permit (signifies
    certification as a diver through an
    internationally recognized certifying agency or
    successfully training specified in Section 4)
  • Other OM defined prerequisites (example release
    waiver, etc.)

98
Scientific Diver Certification
  • Scientific diver certification is issued to
    personnel participating in scientific diving
    under OM auspices
  • The diver must complete additional theoretical
    aspects and practical training for a cumulative
    minimum time of 100 hours

99
Scientific Diver Certification
  • Required Training Topics (include but not limited
    to)
  • Diving Emergency Care Training
  • Dive Rescue
  • Dive Physics
  • Dive Physiology
  • Scientific Diving Regulations History
  • Dive Environments
  • Decompression Theory Application
  • Scientific Method
  • Data Gathering Techniques
  • HazMat Training

100
Scientific Diver Certification
  • Suggested Training Topics (include, but not
    limited to)
  • Specific Diving Modes
  • Small Boat Operation
  • Specialized Breathing Gases
  • Specialized Environments Conditions
  • Specialized Diving Equipment

101
Scientific Diver Certification
  • Practical training must include a checkout dive
    evaluating the OW skills listed in section 4
    followed by at least eleven ocean or openwater
    dives in a variety of dive sites and conditions,
    for a cumulative bottom time of 6 hours
  • These dives must be supervised by a certified
    Scientific Diver with experience in the type of
    diving planned and with the knowledge and
    permission of the DSO

102
Scientific Diver Certification
  • A diver's qualifications, as stated on the
    initial certificate, may be changed by the
    DSO/DCB to reflect additional experience and/or
    training, or changes to the divers certification
    status

103
Depth Certifications
  • In addition to the minimum 12 dive requirement to
    qualify as a Scientific Diver, there are specific
    depth certifications and progression requirements
    within AAUS standards

104
Depth Certifications
  • 30 Foot
  • This is issued after you demonstrate the skills
    listed in Section 4
  • 60 Foot
  • 12 logged training dives between 31 and 60 feet
    for a minimum total time of 4 hours
  • 100 and 130 Foot
  • 4 logged training dives near the maximum depth
    category

105
Depth Certifications
  • Depths greater than 130 ft
  • A diver may be certified to depths of 150 and 190
    ft after the completion of four training dives
    near each depth
  • Diving on air is not permitted beyond a depth of
    190 ft

106
Depth Certifications
  • Certification Progression
  • Divers are required to progress from the 30 ft
    certification to the 60 ft certification and
    successively to the deeper certification levels
    after successfully completing the mandatory dives
    and cumulative time requirements
  • These dives are planned and executed under close
    supervision of a diver certified to the
    certification depth and with the knowledge and
    permission of the DSO

107
Maintaining Certification
  • During any 12-month period, each certified
    scientific diver must log a minimum of 12 dives
  • At least one dive must be logged near the maximum
    depth of the diver's certification during each
    6-month period
  • Divers certified to 150 feet or deeper may
    satisfy these requirements with dives to 130 feet
    or over

108
Maintaining Certification
  • Must maintain current medical and current
    certification in first aid, CPR and oxygen
    administration
  • Maintaining Fitness to Dive
  • It is the divers responsibility to maintain
    fitness to dive
  • Fitness to dive refers to general physical
    fitness adequate to meet projected project goals
    and diving conditions, as well as fitness on a
    day to day basis including, but not limited to
    proper attitude, hydration, and nutrition

109
Revocation of Certification
  • A diving certificate may be revoked or restricted
    for cause by the OM DSO or DCB
  • Diving Manual Standards violations or other
    governmental subdivisions not in conflict with
    diving standards may be considered cause

110
Recertification
  • A diver whose certificate expires or is revoked
    may be re-certified after complying with
    conditions imposed by the OM DSO or DCB

111
Section 6 Medical Standards
112
General Medical Requirements
  • The OM shall determine that divers have passed a
    current diving physical examination and have been
    declared by the examining physician to be fit to
    engage in diving activities as may be limited or
    restricted in the medical evaluation report

113
General Medical Requirements
  • All medical evaluations shall be performed by, or
    under the direction of, a licensed physician
    preferably one trained in diving/undersea
    medicine
  • The diver should be free of any chronic disabling
    disease and be free of any conditions for which
    restrictions from diving are generally recommended

114
Medical evaluation shall be completed
  • Before a diver may begin diving
  • Thereafter, at 5 year intervals up to age 40,
    every 3 years after age 40, and every 2 years
    after age 60 from the date of initial evaluation
    or last equivalent evaluation
  • After any major injury or illness, or any
    condition requiring hospitalization for more than
    24 hours

115
Medical Examination Forms
  • Medical examination forms detailing the testing
    requirements and information to provide to the
    physician are available from the OM DSO
  • Written copies of the individuals fitness to
    dive report prepared by the examining physician
    shall be obtained by the OM

116
Volume 2
117
Volume 2
  • Volume 2 of the AAUS Standards addresses areas of
    scientific diving beyond standard open circuit
    scuba using air and are beyond the scope of this
    introductory module

118
Volume 2
  • Examples of these diving modes and environments
    include
  • Nitrox
  • Aquarium Diving Operations
  • Staged Decompression
  • Saturation
  • Surface Supplied
  • Rebreathers
  • Mixed Gas

119
Study Questions
  • Use the following study questions to review some
    of the information presented in this self study
    module
  • When you are finished you can print out your
    study questions results

120
Self Study Questions
  • AAUS Standards state a scientific diver
    certification can be revoked or restricted for
    cause by the Organizational Member DSO or DCB.
  • True
  • False

121
Self Study Questions
  • AAUS Standards state a scientific diver
    certification can be revoked or restricted for
    cause by the Organizational Member DSO or DCB.
  • True
  • False

122
Self Study Questions
  • AAUS Standards states "The decision to dive is
    that of the diver. A diver may refuse to dive,
    without fear of penalty, whenever they feel it is
    unsafe for them to make the dive.
  • True
  • False

123
Self Study Questions
  • AAUS Standards states "The decision to dive is
    that of the diver. A diver may refuse to dive,
    without fear of penalty, whenever they feel it is
    unsafe for them to make the dive.
  • True
  • False

124
Self Study Questions
  • The ultimate responsibility for safe diving
    procedures rests with the ______.
  • DSO
  • DCB
  • Lead Diver
  • Individual Diver

125
Self Study Questions
  • The ultimate responsibility for safe diving
    procedures rests with the ______.
  • DSO
  • DCB
  • Lead Diver
  • Individual Diver

126
Self Study Questions
  • Select all of the topics included in AAUS Volume
    2 Standards.
  • Nitrox
  • Aquarium Diving Operations
  • Staged Decompression
  • Saturation
  • Surface Supplied
  • Rebreathers
  • Mixed Gas
  • Air

127
Self Study Questions
  • Select all of the topics included in AAUS Volume
    2 Standards.
  • Nitrox
  • Aquarium Diving Operations
  • Staged Decompression
  • Saturation
  • Surface Supplied
  • Rebreathers
  • Mixed Gas
  • Air

128
Self Study Questions
  • OSHA exempted scientific diving from commercial
    diving regulations in ____. The exemption can be
    found in ________ of the OSHA regulations.
  • 1982 / 29CFR Part 1910, Subpart T
  • 1987 / 29CFR Part 1910, Subpart T
  • 1975 / 29CFR Part 1910, Subpart T
  • 1990 / 40CFR Part 1460, Subpart T

129
Self Study Questions
  • OSHA exempted scientific diving from commercial
    diving regulations in ____. The exemption can be
    found in ________ of the OSHA regulations.
  • 1982 / 29CFR Part 1910, Subpart T
  • 1987 / 29CFR Part 1910, Subpart T
  • 1975 / 29CFR Part 1910, Subpart T
  • 1990 / 40CFR Part 1460, Subpart T

130
Self Study Questions
  • Select all Scientific Diver Certification
    requirements specified by AAUS Standards. There
    are a minimum of four correct answers.
  • Requires a medical examination
  • Requires a swim test
  • Requires theoretical and practical training for a
    cumulative minimum of 100 hours
  • Requires a minimum of 24 dives be logged during
    any 12-month period
  • Includes depth certification requirements
  • Requires training in specialized breathing gases

131
Self Study Questions
  • Select all Scientific Diver Certification
    requirements specified by AAUS Standards. There
    are a minimum of four correct answers.
  • Requires a medical examination
  • Requires a swim test
  • Requires theoretical and practical training for a
    cumulative minimum of 100 hours
  • Requires a minimum of 24 dives be logged during
    any 12-month period
  • Includes depth certification requirements
  • Requires training in specialized breathing gases

132
Self Study Questions
  • Aside from any major injury or illness, or any
    condition requiring hospitalization AAUS
    Standards state the required interval for a
    diving medical examination is every 5 years for
    all scientific divers.
  • True
  • False

133
Self Study Questions
  • Aside from any major injury or illness, or any
    condition requiring hospitalization AAUS
    Standards state the required interval for a
    diving medical examination is every 5 years for
    all scientific divers.
  • True
  • False

134
Self Study Questions
  • In addition to medical and minimum number of
    dives to be logged annually, AAUS standards state
    holders of a scientific diver certification must
    also maintain current certification in first aid,
    CPR, and oxygen administration for their
    certification be current.
  • True
  • False

135
Self Study Questions
  • In addition to medical and minimum number of
    dives to be logged annually, AAUS standards state
    holders of a scientific diver certification must
    also maintain current certification in first aid,
    CPR, and oxygen administration for their
    certification be current.
  • True
  • False

136
Self Study Questions
  • AAUS Standards state "A scientific diver may not
    deviate from the requirements of the Diving
    Safety Manual.
  • True
  • False

137
Self Study Questions
  • AAUS Standards state "A scientific diver may not
    deviate from the requirements of the Diving
    Safety Manual.
  • True
  • False

138
Self Study Questions
  • AAUS standards allow a diver wearing a drysuit to
    forego wearing a BCD.
  • True
  • False

139
Self Study Questions
  • AAUS standards allow a diver wearing a drysuit to
    forego wearing a BCD.
  • True
  • False

140
Self Study Questions
  • A major factor in obtaining the scientific diving
    exemption was the low accident/incident rate
    documented within the scientific diving
    community.
  • True
  • False

141
Self Study Questions
  • A major factor in obtaining the scientific diving
    exemption was the low accident/incident rate
    documented within the scientific diving
    community.
  • True
  • False

142
Self Study Questions
  • Match the statement with the correct AAUS topic.
  • a. Historic Slogan
  • b. Mission Statement
  • c. Purposes and Goals
  • Dedicated to the advancement and practice of
    scientific diving.
  • To facilitate the development of safe and
    productive scientific divers through education,
    research, advocacy, and the advancement of
    standards for scientific diving practices,
    certifications, and operations.
  • Develop, review and revise standards collect,
    review and distribute statistics conduct
    symposia and workshops represent the scientific
    diving interests of the membership before other
    organizations and government agencies and fund
    research, education and development of safe
    scientific diving programs and practices.

143
Self Study Questions
  • Match the statement with the correct AAUS topic.
  • a. Historic Slogan
  • b. Mission Statement
  • c. Purposes and Goals
  • Dedicated to the advancement and practice of
    scientific diving.
  • To facilitate the development of safe and
    productive scientific divers through education,
    research, advocacy, and the advancement of
    standards for scientific diving practices,
    certifications, and operations.
  • Develop, review and revise standards collect,
    review and distribute statistics conduct
    symposia and workshops represent the scientific
    diving interests of the membership before other
    organizations and government agencies and fund
    research, education and development of safe
    scientific diving programs and practices.

144
Self Study Questions
  • Match the statement with the correct AAUS topic.
  • a. Historic Slogan
  • b. Mission Statement
  • c. Purposes and Goals
  • Dedicated to the advancement and practice of
    scientific diving.
  • To facilitate the development of safe and
    productive scientific divers through education,
    research, advocacy, and the advancement of
    standards for scientific diving practices,
    certifications, and operations.
  • Develop, review and revise standards collect,
    review and distribute statistics conduct
    symposia and workshops represent the scientific
    diving interests of the membership before other
    organizations and government agencies and fund
    research, education and development of safe
    scientific diving programs and practices.

145
Self Study Questions
  • Match the statement with the correct AAUS topic.
  • a. Historic Slogan
  • b. Mission Statement
  • c. Purposes and Goals
  • Dedicated to the advancement and practice of
    scientific diving.
  • To facilitate the development of safe and
    productive scientific divers through education,
    research, advocacy, and the advancement of
    standards for scientific diving practices,
    certifications, and operations.
  • Develop, review and revise standards collect,
    review and distribute statistics conduct
    symposia and workshops represent the scientific
    diving interests of the membership before other
    organizations and government agencies and fund
    research, education and development of safe
    scientific diving programs and practices.

146
Self Study Questions
  • AAUS standards provide information on minimum
    equipment configuration that you need to be aware
    of and apply. For example Assuming each item
    attached to a regulator first stage has its own
    hose and port (no combination items such as an
    octopus/inflator), what is the minimum number of
    ports necessary for a first stage supporting a
    diver wearing a drysuit? (One cylinder, one first
    stage, account for all regulator items specified
    in AAUS standards)
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6

147
Self Study Questions
  • AAUS standards provide information on minimum
    equipment configuration that you need to be aware
    of and apply. For example Assuming each item
    attached to a regulator first stage has its own
    hose and port (no combination items such as an
    octopus/inflator), what is the minimum number of
    ports necessary for a first stage supporting a
    diver wearing a drysuit? (One cylinder, one first
    stage, account for all regulator items specified
    in AAUS standards)
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6

148
Self Study Questions
  • Select all that apply to the operational control
    of a Diving Control Board. There are at least
    four correct answers.
  • Has autonomous and absolute authority over the
    scientific diving program's operation.
  • Has operational responsibility for the conduct of
    the local diving program.
  • Shall establish and/or approve training programs
    through which the applicants for certification
    can satisfy the requirements of the
    organizational member's diving safety manual.
  • Shall be at the dive location during the diving
    operation.
  • Shall assure adherence to the buddy system for
    scuba diving.
  • Empowers and guides the Diving Safety Officer in
    the performance of required duties.

149
Self Study Questions
  • Select all that apply to the operational control
    of a Diving Control Board. There are at least
    four correct answers.
  • Has autonomous and absolute authority over the
    scientific diving program's operation.
  • Has operational responsibility for the conduct of
    the local diving program.
  • Shall establish and/or approve training programs
    through which the applicants for certification
    can satisfy the requirements of the
    organizational member's diving safety manual.
  • Shall be at the dive location during the diving
    operation.
  • Shall assure adherence to the buddy system for
    scuba diving.
  • Empowers and guides the Diving Safety Officer in
    the performance of required duties.

150
Self Study Questions
  • The fight to obtain a scientific diving exemption
    began in 1975 as a result of a petition filed
    with OSHA by the _________.
  • United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of
    America
  • Association of Dive Contractors (ADC)
  • United Auto Workers
  • American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS)

151
Self Study Questions
  • The fight to obtain a scientific diving exemption
    began in 1975 as a result of a petition filed
    with OSHA by the _________.
  • United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of
    America
  • Association of Dive Contractors (ADC)
  • United Auto Workers
  • American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS)

152
Self Study Questions
  • Unlike scientific diving, recreational diving is
    required by law to adhere to the buddy system for
    scuba diving.
  • True
  • False

153
Self Study Questions
  • Unlike scientific diving, recreational diving is
    required by law to adhere to the buddy system for
    scuba diving.
  • True
  • False

154
Self Study Questions
  • Select all the true statements applying to
    Scientific Diving and the exemption to OSHA
    Commercial Diving regulations. There are at least
    four correct answers.
  • diving performed solely as a necessary part of a
    scientific, research, or educational activity by
    employees whose sole purpose for diving is to
    perform scientific research tasks.
  • is exempt from commercial diving standards as
    long as the dives are under the supervision of a
    Diving Safety Officer.
  • must be under the direction and control of a
    diving program with a diving manual, and a Diving
    Control Board.
  • the tasks of a scientific diver are those of an
    observer and data gatherer.
  • construction and trouble-shooting tasks
    traditionally associated with commercial diving
    are included within scientific diving.
  • scientific divers are scientists or
    scientists-in-training.
  • only members of the American Academy of
    Underwater Sciences (AAUS) can qualify for the
    scientific diving exemption.

155
Self Study Questions
  • Select all the true statements applying to
    Scientific Diving and the exemption to OSHA
    Commercial Diving regulations. There are at least
    four correct answers.
  • diving performed solely as a necessary part of a
    scientific, research, or educational activity by
    employees whose sole purpose for diving is to
    perform scientific research tasks.
  • is exempt from commercial diving standards as
    long as the dives are under the supervision of a
    Diving Safety Officer.
  • must be under the direction and control of a
    diving program with a diving manual, and a Diving
    Control Board.
  • the tasks of a scientific diver are those of an
    observer and data gatherer.
  • construction and trouble-shooting tasks
    traditionally associated with commercial diving
    are included within scientific diving.
  • scientific divers are scientists or
    scientists-in-training.
  • only members of the American Academy of
    Underwater Sciences (AAUS) can qualify for the
    scientific diving exemption.

156
Self Study Questions
  • One of the requirements for meeting the
    scientific diving exemption to OSHA commercial
    diving regulations is that the majority of
    members of an organization's Diving Control Board
    must be active scientific divers.
  • True
  • False

157
Self Study Questions
  • One of the requirements for meeting the
    scientific diving exemption to OSHA commercial
    diving regulations is that the majority of
    members of an organization's Diving Control Board
    must be active scientific divers.
  • True
  • False

158
Self Study Questions
  • Which of the following individuals is required to
    be present at the scientific dive site?
  • the DSO
  • a member of the DCB
  • the Lead Diver
  • a Diving Medical Technician (DMT)/Chamber
    Operator

159
Self Study Questions
  • Which of the following individuals is required to
    be present at the scientific dive site?
  • the DSO
  • a member of the DCB
  • the Lead Diver
  • a Diving Medical Technician (DMT)/Chamber
    Operator

160
Self Study Questions
  • AAUS Standards state "Under all circumstances, a
    diver will terminate the dive, without fear of
    penalty, whenever they feel it is unsafe to
    continue the dive.
  • True
  • False

161
Self Study Questions
  • AAUS Standards state "Under all circumstances, a
    diver will terminate the dive, without fear of
    penalty, whenever they feel it is unsafe to
    continue the dive.
  • True
  • False
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