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Introduction to Science

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Introduction to Science By: Mr. Kauffman Lab Glassware The Scientific Method (Important Vocabulary) Lab Glassware The Scientific Method (Important Vocabulary) Outline ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Science


1
Introduction to Science
  • By Mr. Kauffman

2
Outline
  • What is science?
  • Types of sciences
  • Systems of measure
  • Scientific measuring
  • Scientific measuring length
  • Scientific measuring mass
  • Scientific measuring volume
  • Scientific method
  • Parts of a science experiment
  • Theory vs. Law

3
What is science?
  • Science a way to solve problems and answer
    questions
  • a way to understand the world we live in
  • usually end with logy
  • meaning the study of
  • prefix of the word tells what it studies
  • example entymology
  • The study of insects

4
Types of Sciences
  1. Biology study of living things
  2. Chemistry study of chemicals and how they
    combine
  3. Ecology study of the environment
  4. Microbiology study of very small living things

5
Types of Sciences
  1. Zoology study of animals
  2. Archaeology study of ancient artifacts and
    remains
  3. Astronomy study of outer space
  4. Genetics study of genes/DNA

6
Lab Glassware
A. Beaker Used for pouring and transferring
liquids. Not used for measuring.
B. Erlenmeyer Flask Used for mixing liquids.
The tapered neck helps keep liquids from
splashing or spilling out.
C. Graduated Cylinder Used for measuring
precise amounts of liquids. The level of the
liquid is measured at the bottom of the meniscus.
7
Systems of Measure
  • 2 Common Measurement Systems
  • American System
  • system we use in the USA
  • examples of units feet, yards, inches, pounds,
    gallons
  • Metric System
  • system used in all other countries of the world
  • used by scientists (we will use in class)
  • examples of units meter, gram, liter, milliliter

8
Scientific Measuring
  • 4 areas of scientific measuring (metric system)
  • Length distance from 1 place to another
  • units we use to measure
  • Meter
  • Centimeter
  • Millimeter
  • Kilometer

9
Scientific Measuring
  • 4 areas of scientific measuring (metric system)
  • Mass how much of something there is
  • units we use to measure
  • Gram
  • Milligram
  • Kilogram

10
Scientific Measuring
  • 4 areas of scientific measuring (metric system)
  • Volume amount of liquid an object can hold
  • units we use to measure
  • Liter
  • Milliliter

11
Scientific Measuring
  • 4 areas of scientific measuring (metric system)
  • Temperature how hot or cold something is
  • units we use to measure
  • Celsius

12
Scientific Measuring
  • Metric system prefixes
  • Kilo-
  • Hecto-
  • Deka-
  • Deci-
  • Centi-
  • Milli-

13
Scientific Measuring
  • Metric system abbreviations
  • Gram g
  • Kilogram kg
  • Hectogram hg
  • Dekagram dag
  • Decigram dg
  • Centigram cg
  • Milligram mg
  • Metric system abbreviations
  • Meter m
  • Kilometer km
  • Hectometer hm
  • Dekameter dam
  • Decimeter dm
  • Cenitmeter cm
  • Millimeter mm

14
Scientific Measuring
  • Metric system abbreviations
  • Liter L
  • Kiloliter kL
  • Hectoliter hL
  • Dekaliter daL
  • Deciliter dL
  • Centiliter cL
  • Milliliter mL

15
Scientific Measuring - Length
  • Length distance from 1 place to another
  • units used (both american and metric system)
  • American System inches (in.), feet (ft.),
    yards, miles
  • Metric System meter (m), centimeter (cm),
    millimeter (mm), kilometer (km)

16
Scientific Measuring - Length
  • Length distance from 1 place to another
  • how to measure make sure your zero line is
    lined up with your starting point
  • inches each little line on the ruler equals
    1/16th of an inch
  • centimeters each little line on the ruler
    equals .1 centimeters

17
Scientific Measuring Mass
  • Mass how much of something there is
  • Similar to weight
  • What instrument do we use to measure mass?
  • triple beam balance
  • Units used (metric system only)
  • Grams (g)

18
Scientific Measuring Mass
  • Steps for using the balances
  • 1. Place the object on the pan
  • 2. Move the sliders to determine the mass of the
    object
  • start with the largest slider and work
    your way down to the
  • smallest slider
  • sliders must be in the notches
  • 3. Add up the numbers to determine the total
    mass

19
Scientific Measuring Mass
62.4 g
0
2.4
60
20
Scientific Measuring Volume
  • Volume amount of liquid an object can hold
  • What do we use to measure volume?
  • Beaker
  • Graduated Cylinder
  • Erlenmeyer Flask
  • Units used (metric system only)
  • Liters (L)
  • Milliliters (mL)

21
Scientific Measuring Volume
  • Volume amount of liquid an object can hold
  • How to measure volume
  • Read the bottom of the meniscus (curved line)
  • Each little line equals 1 mL (if it is in between
    lines make it .5)

22
Scientific Method
  • The scientific method is a way to solve problems
    using 6 steps
  • all scientists use the same process
  • 2 important ideas
  • critical thinking use skills to solve problems
  • separate important information from unimportant
    information
  • organization the 6 steps that must be followed

23
6 Steps of the Scientific Method
  • 1. State the Problem
  • What do you want to figure out?
  • 2. Research
  • - Gather information about topic
  • 3. Make a hypothesis
  • Hypothesis an educated guess that can be tested
  • What do you think will happen?

24
6 Steps of the Scientific Method
  • 4. Design and conduct an experiment
  • How will the hypothesis be tested?
  • 5. Analyze data from experiment
  • What did the experiment tell you?
  • Data can be quantitative (numbers) or
  • qualitative (observations)
  • 6. Draw conclusions
  • Was your hypothesis correct or incorrect?
  • If correct, repeat your experiment to confirm
    results
  • If incorrect, change your hypothesis and test
    again

25
Models of Scientific Method
  • My example Chemical reactions based on pH levels
  • State the problem
  • Will lemon juice cause milk to spoil faster than
    normal?
  • Hypothesis
  • If lemon juice is added to milk, then it will
    cause it to spoil faster than if nothing was
    added to it.
  • Experiment
  • Add 20ml of lemon juice to 100 ml of milk
  • Analyze data
  • Draw conclusions

26
Parts of a Science Experiment
  • Control what you compare your results to
  • Part of your experiment that remains the same
  • Independent Variable what you are testing in
    the experiment
  • Part of your experiment that is changed to cause
    some sort of effect
  • Dependent Variable what you are measuring
  • The effect caused by the independent variable

27
The Scientific Method(Important Vocabulary)
  • Qualitative Data
  • Overview
  • Deals with descriptions.
  • Data can be observed but not measured.
  • Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance,
    beauty, etc.
  • Qualitative ? Quality
  • Quantitative Data
  • Overview
  • Deals with numbers.
  • Data which can be measured.
  • Length, height, area, volume, weight, speed,
    time, temperature, humidity, sound levels, cost,
    members, ages, etc.
  • Quantitative ? Quantity 
  • Example Race Car
  • Qualitative data
  • bright colors
  • smells of oil and exhaust
  • smooth lines on the cars body
  • exciting to watch
  • Example Race Car
  • Quantitative data
  • Dimensions 15 ft long x 7 ft wide x 4 ft high.
  • Mass 1800 lbs.
  • Top Speed 245 mph
  • Cost 545,000

28
Theory vs. Law
  • Scientists use experiments to develop theories
    and laws
  • Scientific Theory an explanation of how things
    happen based on scientific knowledge
  • Based on many experiments and observations
  • Accepted to be true, but can be changed based on
    new information
  • Example Theory of Evolution
  • Explains how living things have changed over
    millions of years

29
Theory vs. Law
  • Scientific Law statement about how things work
    that is true all of the time
  • Tells what will happen
  • Example Law of Gravity
  • Explains how objects exert a gravitational force
    (pull) on other objects
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