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Governments in kenya , South africa, and the Sudan


Title: Governments in kenya , South africa, and the Sudan Author: pamela.knauer Last modified by: YAWNIII, MATT Created Date: 3/12/2009 1:47:10 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Governments in kenya , South africa, and the Sudan

Governments in kenya , South africa, and the Sudan
  • SS7CG1 The student will compare and contrast
    various forms of government.
  • Describe the ways government systems distribute
    power unitary, confederation, and federal.
  • Explain how governments determine citizen
    participation autocratic, oligarchic, and
  • Describe the two predominant forms of democratic
    governments parliamentary and presidential.
  • SS7CG2 The student will explain the structures of
    the modern governments of Africa.
  • Compare the republican systems of government in
    the Republic of Kenya and the republic of South
    Africa to the dictatorship of the republic of the
    Sudan, distinguishing the form of leadership and
    the role of the citizen in terms of voting and
    personal freedoms.

Essential questions
  • How do the unitary, confederation, and federal
    systems distribute power?
  • How do autocratic, oligarchic, and democratic
    governments determine citizen participation?
  • What are the components of parliamentary and
    presidential governments?
  • What are the differences and similarities between
    the republican systems of government in the
    Republic of Kenya, the Republic of South Africa,
    and the Republic of Sudan in terms of leadership,
    public voting, and personal freedoms?
  • How does gender affect access to education in
    Kenya and Sudan?
  • What is the impact of government stability on the
    distribution of resources to combat AIDS and
    famine across Africa?

The Government of Kenya
  • In 1963, Kenya became a constitutional republic
    after years of British rule.
  • The new constitution guaranteed many freedoms
    such as freedom of expression and freedom from
  • Any Kenyan 18 years and older is able to vote.
  • Kenyans vote to elect a president and National
    assembly representatives.

  • Up to 70 of Kenyans vote in
  • elections.
  • Kenya has three branches of government
    executive, legislative, and judicial.
  • Jomo Kenyatta, the first elected president wanted
    a nation where people of every race had equal
  • Kenya supports a free press, public school, and
    public health service.

Government in south africa
  • From April 26 to April 29, 1994 17 million black
    South Africans over the age of 18 voted for the
    first time ever.
  • Apartheid had been eliminated and people were
    voting for a new national assembly.
  • The Republic of South Africa gained a new
    constitution that guarantees many personal
    freedoms that South Africans did not enjoy in the

  • It allows the right to life, privacy,
  • property, freedom of speech, religion, and
  • The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary
  • There are three branches of government
    executive, legislative, and judicial.
  • The National Assembly (legislature) elects the
    president, who is the executive head of state and
    leader of the cabinet.

The Government of sudan
  • The government of Sudan is headed by one of the
    worst dictators in the world Omar al-Bashir.
  • He took power in 1989 and abolished the existing
    government, suspended the Constitution,
    restricted freedom of the press, and arrested
    important politicians.
  • Al-Bashir was not elected by the people of Sudan
    he used military force to gain power and imposed
    tight controls on behavior.

  • In 1986, al-Bashir won the 86 of the vote in a
    national election.
  • Questions remain about the fairness of the
    election. Were people forced to vote for
  • Today, there is a transition constitution in
    Sudan which defines the executive branch as the
    president, who is also prime minister, head of
    government, and commander of the armed forces.

  • The National Assembly named al-Bashir as
    president this time, and the constitution states
    the people will vote for the president in future
  • Sudans constitution calls for many personal
    freedoms, but it is not enforced.
  • Sudans human rights record is poor and serious
    abuses of citizens is common.

Sudans sad story
  • Sudan has been involved in a civil war.
  • The Muslim north had set out to war with the
    Christian south.
  • Al-Bashir continued the war and wanted to spread
    Islam and Arab culture to the south.
  • In 2003, international efforts to bring peace to
    Sudan was beginning to work, but then a rebellion
    began in Darfur which is in western Sudan.

  • Al-Bashir responded by killing at
  • least 180,000 civilians in the Darfur and
    driving two million people form their homes.
  • After burning villages, the army attacked refugee
    camps were the people had fled.
  • A cease-fire agreement was signed in 2004, but
    the violence continues.
  • Many nations have condemned the situation in

Quick Check- fill in the chart
Kenya South Africa Sudan
Form of leadership
Is the leader freely elected?
Can citizens vote freely?
Personal freedoms guaranteed
Kenya South Africa Sudan
Form of leadership president president dictator
Is the leader freely elected? yes yes no
Can citizens vote freely? Yes yes no
Personal freedoms guaranteed yes yes no
  • Is Kenya a federal or unitary system of
    government? Why did you pick your answer?
  • Do the citizens in Sudan participate in a
    democratic or autocratic system of government?
    Why did you pick your answer?

Essential Questions
  • How does gender affect access to education in
    Kenya and Sudan?
  • What is the impact of government stability on the
    distribution of resources to combat AIDS and
    famine across Africa?

Education in africa
  • One of the biggest problems facing Africa is
  • Civil wars and lack of resources are major
    factors affecting a quality education for
  • Girls in particular face challenges in receiving
    an education because some African societies give
    priority to the education of boys.

School in kenya
  • In 2003, all children in Kenya were given the
    right to a free primary (elementary) education.
  • In Kenyas cities 80 of the children attend
  • In the rural areas only about 50 of the children
    attend school.
  • In the rural areas there is a shortage of clean
    drinking water, teachers, buildings, and

  • Gender is an issue in rural areas. If parents in
    rural areas have to choose to send either their
    son or daughter because of finances, parents will
    send the son.
  • Also, girls are more likely to quit school due to
    responsibilities at home or few role models to
    encourage them to continue and finish their
  • Kenya is working to increase teacher training and

School in Sudan
  • Education in Sudan has suffered because of years
    of civil war.
  • Families forced into refugee camps get food and
    shelter, but no school.
  • The United Nations estimates that half of the
    children in Darfur and 75 of the children in the
    southern part of Sudan have no access to
  • The government closed Christian schools in
    southern Sudan.

  • When they are able to attend school, girls
    usually leave school around the age of 10 because
    their families think women should be trained in
    domestic skills (caring for a family).
  • The United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) has
    created a program called Go to School in Sudan
    which has doubled the school enrollment in one
  • UNICEF has donated resources, but teacher
    training is still inadequate.

Compare and contrast factors impacting education-
Place an X where the factor applies
Kenya Both Kenya and Sudan Sudan
Shrinking education budget
Men have higher priority
Civil war disrupted schooling
Girls work at home
Lack of supplies and textbooks
Kenya Both Kenya and Sudan Sudan
Shrinking education budget X
Men have higher priority X
Civil war disrupted schooling X
Girls work at home X
Lack of supplies and textbooks X
Class discussion
  • What is the relationship between education and
    literacy rate?
  • How does literacy rate affect a countrys
    standard of living and ultimately its economy?

AIDS in Africa
  • There are 42 million people in the world today
    living with HIV/AIDS. 75 of that number live in
  • Many African governments since independence in
    the 1950s and 1960s have struggled with many
    problems. Many were not prepared to handle the
    AIDS epidemic in Africa.
  • Many African countries have had unstable
    governments and corrupt leaders.

  • Unstable governments have also had a negative
    affect on how African countries have managed the
    healthcare systems in their countries.
  • Many of these countries lack the resources to
    provide basic healthcare let alone the healthcare
    needed to fight AIDS.
  • Botswana, at peace since its independence is
    1966, has the resources to help its citizens who
    have the virus.

Famine in Africa
  • Famine is the third major problem Africa faces
    besides civil wars and AIDS.
  • In Africa, 25 million people needed emergency
    food in 2008.
  • 200 million people in Africa suffer from chronic
  • What is a famine and what causes it?
  • Turn and talk to your neighbor.
  • Discuss

  • A famine occurs when there is not enough food to
    sustain a group of people.
  • Again, the stability of a government impacts the
    nations ability to provide food for its people.
  • Civil wars have caused food shortages
    governments use money for weapons instead of food
    and then prevent aid organizations from
    delivering food to the people who need it.

  • Corrupt leaders use the nations money for their
    own purposes rather than providing food for the
  • Farmers in Africa face many challenges.
  • If there is a shortage of water, crops cannot
    grow and people go hungry.
  • AIDS has reduced the number of farmers who can
    grow the food.
  • Sometimes locusts destroy crops.
  • Soil erosion does not leave the soil fertile
    enough to sustain crops.

As a class
  • List 4 problems farmers face in Africa.
  • List two ways unstable governments have
    contributed to the food crisis in Africa.
  • What seems to be the key factor in solving many
    of Africas problems?

  • The key to solving many of Africas problems is
    stable governments. This is not an easy problem
    to solve.
  • Many of these countries have only had their
    independence for 50 years. These countries are
    young countries in that respect and have not had
    much practice in governing themselves.
  • African countries need strong leaders who care
    about the people and are willing to compromise to
    provide for the basic needs of the people.