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Zakya H. Kafafi Director, Division of Materials Research (DMR) National Science Foundation

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Women in Science and Engineering Research & Education: Looking Back, Racing Forward Zakya H. Kafafi Director, Division of Materials Research (DMR) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Zakya H. Kafafi Director, Division of Materials Research (DMR) National Science Foundation


1
Women in Science and Engineering Research
Education Looking Back, Racing Forward
  • Zakya H. Kafafi Director, Division of Materials
    Research (DMR) National Science Foundation
  • zkafafi_at_nsf.gov
  • 2010 WISE Career Development Conference, AM
    University, College Station, TX

2
  • Women in Science and Engineering Research
    Education Looking Back, Racing Forward

Outline of My Talk
Shirley Ann Jackson Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute 1999
  • Status of Women in Science Engineering
  • Past Looking Back at the last decade
  • Present
  • Future Racing Forward to the next decade
  • The MIT Report (1999) A Case Study
  • The Status of Women Faculty in Science at MIT
  • Its major findings
  • Its impact
  • Their Career Paths
  • Are they similar or different than the career
    paths of men
  • presidents? What are the characteristics of
    these leaders?
  • What are the efforts at NSF and DMR in this
    regard?

Maria Klawe Harvey Mudd College 2006
Drew Gilpin Faust Harvard University 2007
3
The First Woman President of an Ivy League
University
  • Judith Rodin was the first permanent woman and
    7th president of the University of Pennsylvania
    at the age of 49
  • She is widely recognized for her ground-breaking
    research in obesity, eating disorders, aging, and
    womens health
  • 1972-1994 a Yale faculty member who helped
    pioneer the fields of behavioral medicine and
    health psychology
  • She also served as the Department of Psychology
    Chair, Dean of the Graduate School of Arts
    Sciences, and Provost of Yale University
  • 2005-present She is president of the Rockefeller
    Foundation, one of the worlds oldest, most
    influential, and innovative foundations

1994 2004
EDUCATION BA Psychology, Univ of
Pennsylvania Ph.D. Psychology, Columbia Univ
Many of the 20th centurys big
breakthroughsSocial Security, the Green
Revolution, the discovery of DNA, and family
planningcan be traced to early funding from the
Rockefeller Foundation
4
A Study on the Status of Women Faculty in Science
at MIT Committee Chaired by Nancy Hopkins
Women Faculty in the School of Science at MIT
  • The women faculty in the School of Science has
    not increased for at least a decade!!
  • As of 1994, there were 22 women and 252 male
    faculty

MAIN ISSUE
Status and equitable treatment of women faculty
in the School of Science
4
5
Statistics on Female Undergraduates at MIT
The Percent of Female Undergraduates at MIT
stayed below 5 over the first 60 years of the
last century and increased by almost an order of
magnitude from 1966-2006
5
6
EXCLUSION AND MARGINALIZATION
  • Committee collected data and conducted interviews
    with women faculty and Department Heads
  • Difference in salary
  • Exclusion of women faculty in positions of power
    and administrative responsibility within
    departments or within the broader MIT community
  • Apparent discrimination
  • Unequal access to space and resources
  • Non-democratic practices and administrative
    procedures, known only to a few, lead to unequal
    access to the substantial resources of MIT

Difference in treatment among tenured faculty!!
7
MIT REPORT (1999)
  • Make the Committee on Women Faculty a standing
    committee
  • Establish an open communication between
    Department Heads and women faculty
  • Collect equity data
  • Raise community consciousness
  • Seek out women for influential positions
  • Advise Department Heads to place senior women
    faculty on search committees
  • Review the compensation system
  • Replace administrators who continue
    discriminatory practices
  • Watch for, and intervene to prevent, the
    isolation and gradual marginalization
  • Promote integration of junior women faculty
  • Address the childbearing issue for junior women
    faculty

8
  • Ruth Jean Simmons
  • Brown University
  • 2001

Drew Gilpin Faust Harvard University 2007
Shirley Marie Tilghman Princeton University 2001
Amy Gutmann University of Pennsylvania 2004
  • At present, 50 of the presidents of Ivy League
  • universities are WOMEN
  • The presidents of Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth,
    and
  • Yale are Men

8
9
Shirley Marie Tilghman Princeton Univ 2001
Drew Gilpin Faust Harvard Univ 2007
Amy Gutmann Univ of Pennsylvania 2004
Susan Hockfield MIT 2004
  • At present, gt50 of the MIT-9 presidents are
    WOMEN
  • The presidents of Cal Tech, UC Berkeley,
    Stanford, and Yale are Men
  • Mary Sue Coleman
  • Univ of Michigan
  • 2002

10
Percent of Women Presidents
  • Type of Institution 1986 2006
  • Doctorate-granting institutions 4 14
  • Master's institutions 10 22
  • Baccalaureate institutions 16 23
  • Associate's institutions 8 29
  • Special Focus institutions 7 17  

American Council of Education, 2007, American
College President Study, Washington, D.C. Note
institutional types based on the Carnegie
Classification 2005
11
UNIVERSITY PRESIDENTS
  • According to the data collected by the American
    Council
  • on Education, the typical president in 2006 was
  • a white male
  • age 60
  • married
  • with a doctorate degree
  • had been in office 8.5 years
  • served previously as a chief academic officer or
    provost

Do women presidents fall under the same
characteristics of a typical men president?
12
WOMEN UNIVERSITY PRESIDENTS
Lets take a look at the careers of some women
university presidents
Did they follow similar career paths to those of
men university presidents?
13
MARIA KLAWE
  • The first Woman President of Harvey Mudd College,
    at the age of 51
  • A renowned computer scientist
  • Husband Nick Pippenger
  • Theoretical Computer Scientist
  • They have two children, Janek and Sasha
  • EDUCATION
  • B. Sc. Mathematics, University of Alberta
  • Ph.D. Mathematics, University of Alberta
  • PRIOR POSITIONS
  • Dean of Engineering and professor of Computer
    Science at Princeton University
  • Dean of Science, Vice-President of Student and
    Academic Services, and Head of
  • Computer Science at the University of British
    Columbia

July 2006 Present
14
MARIA KLAWE
  • Klawe has been active in many organizations
    promoting women and leadership in science and
    technology
  • Chair of the board for the Anita Borg Institute
    for Women and Technology, Palo Alto, California
  • Became the 10th member of the Microsoft Board in
    2009
  • Elected to the American Academy of Arts and
    Sciences
  • Trustee for the Institute for Pure and Applied
    Mathematics at UCLA, the Mathematical Sciences
    Research Institute in Berkeley, and the American
    Mathematical Society
  • Honorary doctorates from Dalhousie University
    (2005), Queen's University (2004), the University
    of Waterloo (2003), and Ryerson University (2001)

15
MARIAS ART
  • "I've been painting and drawing for as long as I
    can remember. I found it hard to
  • choose between a career in art and a career in
    math/science. I eventually opted
  • for math/science, because I thought it would be
    easier to do art on the side than
  • math/science on the side."   

16
MARIAS ART
  • "I took a number of fine arts courses while in
    university but was quite discouraged by
  • the attitude of the faculty toward students
    majoring in science (they felt science students
  • shouldnt be allowed in courses for those
    majoring in fine arts). As I became a
    professional
  • mathematician and then a computer scientist, it
    became clear that also being an artist would
  • diminish my credibility (already in question
    because of being female), so I kept my painting
  • secret. When I turned 40, I decided to come out
    of the closet and I hung several of my paintings
  • in my office as well as in my home."

17
MARIAS ART
  • "Today, I show paintings whenever I try to
    recruit students to engineering. I want them to
    know
  • that many leading engineers and scientists are
    artists, musicians, dancers, or writers.
  • Engineering and science are creative
    disciplines. It shouldnt be surprising that the
    creative
  • energy, passion, and talent cross into other
    areas. I cant imagine living without painting.
    Its a
  • form of expression of ideas and emotion that I
    cannot express through any other medium.

18
SHIRLEY ANN JACKSON
  • First Woman President of Rensellaer Polytechnic
    Institute, at the age of 52 (July 1999 Present)
  • Husband Dr. Morris A. Washington Physics
    Professor at RPI
  • They have one son, Alan

19
SHIRLEY ANN JACKSON
  • In July 1999, Shirley Ann Jackson, became the
    eighteenth president of Rensellaer Polytechnic
    Institute (RPI), the oldest technological
    university
  • in the United States
  • A renowned theoretical physicist, who studies the
    subatomic world, Shirley Ann Jackson became the
    first woman president of RPI
  • EDUCATION
  • B. Sc. Physics, MIT
  • Ph.D. Physics, MIT
  • PRIOR POSITIONS
  • Chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory
    Commission
  • Theoretical physicist at ATT Bell Laboratories
  • Professor of theoretical physics at Rutgers
    University

July 1999 Present
20
AIM FOR THE STARS
  • Shirleys passion for science blossomed during
    her childhood, with bumblebee experiments and
    go-cart races
  • Her talent for math and her drive to succeed
    have taken her career in amazing directions
  • Growing up in Washington D.C. in 1960s, little
    Shirley absorbed her fathers principle Aim for
    the stars
  • By the age of eight, Shirley Ann Jackson was
    developing her passions for science, knowledge,
    and accomplishments
  • She graduated as valedictorian from the
    segregated Roosevelt High School in D.C. in the
    1960s
  • She then joined the first wave of African
    American students to be accepted at MIT

21
SHIRLEY ANN JACKSON
  • One of only two African-American women in her
    undergraduate class
  • First to earn a doctorate degree from MIT
  • One of the first two African-American women in
    the United States to earn a doctorate in physics
  • Shirley Ann Jackson was both the first woman and
    the first African-American to serve as the
    Chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory
    Commission
  • She is the first African-American woman to lead a
    top-50 national research university
  • In April 2009, Barack Obama appointed Dr. Jackson
    to serve on the Presidents Council of Advisors
    of Science and Technology

22
DREW GILPIN FAUST
  • First Woman President of Harvard University, at
    the age of 59
  • Husband Charles E. Rosenberg
  • Historian of Medicine and Science at Harvard
    University
  • They have two daughters, Jessica and Leah

July 2007 Present
23
DREW GILPIN FAUST
  • Became the twenty-eighth president of Harvard in
    July 2007
  • A renowned historian and scholar of the Civil War
    and American South, Gilpin is the first woman
    president to lead Harvard, the oldest university
    in the United States, founded in 1636
  • She is the first president since 1672 without any
    degree from Harvard
  • She is Lincoln Professor of History in Harvards
    Faculty of Arts and Sciences
  • EDUCATION
  • BA in History, Bryn Mawr University
  • MA in American Civilization, University of
    Pennsylvania
  • Ph.D. in American Civilization, University of
    Pennsylvania
  • PRIOR POSITIONS
  • Founding Dean of the Radcliffe Institute for
    Advanced Study
  • Annenberg Professor of History and Director of
    the Womens Studies Program, University of
    Pennsylvania, where she served for 25 years on
    the faculty

24
REBELLIOUS DAUGHTER
  • What were the odds that the president of Harvard
    would be a woman?
  • Raised in the Shenandoah Valley, VA.
  • Drew was told repeatedly by her mother Its a
    mans world, sweetie, and the sooner you learn
    that, the better off youll be.
  • In October 2007, upon her appointment as
    Harvards new president, Drew,
  • was given a brown manila envelope that had been
    entrusted to the
  • University Archives in 1951 by James B. Conant,
    Harvards 23 president,
  • and to be opened in the 21st century. It was
    addressed to My dear Sir

25
DREW GILPIN FAUST
  • One of the things that I think characterize my
  • generation that characterizes me, anyway, and
    others
  • of my generation is that Ive always been
    surprised by
  • how my life turned out, Ive always done more
    than
  • I ever thought I would. Becoming a professor I
    never
  • thought I would have imagined that. Writing books
    I
  • never would have imagined that. Getting a Ph.D.
    Im
  • not sure I would have even have imagined that.
    Ive
  • lived my life a step at a time. Things sort of
    happened.

26
WOMEN UNIVERSITY PRESIDENTS
Their Career Paths
  • Amazingly, they did not plan or dream to become
    university presidents
  • They seized the opportunity, when it occurred
  • They chose this path to make a difference and to
    show that they can do the job
  • At the same time, their spouses did not sacrifice
    their careers, and did not become high-profile
    volunteers, who served as informal leaders

What struck me is the similarities among such a
diverse group of women, in terms of their
education, career paths, leadership styles, and
philosophies.
26
27
Bachelor's degrees awarded in SE and non-SE
fields, by gender 19662007
Women have earned approximately half of SE
bachelors degrees since 2000
  • The number of bachelor's degrees earned by women
    have increased since 1966 reaching
  • 244,000 in SE and 642,000 in non-SE in 2007
  • The number of bachelor's degrees earned by men
    in SE fields remained fairly flat for
  • much of the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s before
    rising through 2007

27
28
Doctoral degrees awarded to U.S. citizens
permanent residents, by gender 19892007
Women earned increasing numbers of doctoral
degrees throughout the period in both SE and
non-SE fields
  • In 2007, women earned 47 of SE doctoral
    degrees up from 33 in 1989, in contrast to the
    generally flat or downward trend for men
  • Men earned roughly 10,000 SE doctoral degrees
    in both 1989 and 2007

28
SOURCE National Science Foundation, Division of
Science Resources Statistics, special tabulations
of U.S. Department of Education, National Center
for Education Statistics, Integrated
Postsecondary Education Data System, Completions
Survey, 19892007.
29
DMR Sponsored Workshops
Ultimate Goal
To Develop a Diversified Materials Research
Education Workforce
  • Materials Science and Engineering Gender Equity
    Workshop,
  • Adelphi, MD, May 18-20, 2008
  • Materials Science and Materials Engineering
    Education Workshop,
  • Arlington, VA, September 18-19, 2008
  • Workshop on Excellence Empowered by a Diverse
  • AcademicWorkforce Chemists, Chemical Engineers
    and Materials
  • Scientists with Disabilities, Arlington, VA,
    February 8-10, 2009

30
MSE Gender Equity Workshop May 18-20,
2008 University of Maryland Conference Center,
Adelphi, MD http//www.mse.uiuc.edu/gender/index.h
tm
Goal Understand key issues of gender equity in
MSE departments and develop strategies to
foster an inclusive workplace environment
  • Topics included current status, understanding
    biases, balancing
  • work and family life, improving the workplace
    environment, etc.
  • 100 Participants from academia, National
    labs., funding agencies
  • A report was just published

Held at the annual meeting of University
Materials Council Sponsors NSF (DMR ENG),
DOE-BES,UMC, and UIUC MSE department
31
REFERENCES
  • JUDITH RODIN
  • http//www.upenn.edu/pennnews/rodin_legacy/biograp
    hy.html
  • http//www.rockefellerfoundation.org/about-us/lead
    ership/judith-rodin-phd
  • http//www.archives.upenn.edu/histy/features/uplan
    s/rodin.html
  • MARIA KLAWE
  • http//www.hmc.edu/about/administrativeoffices/off
    iceofthepresident1/bio.html
  • http//kara.allthingsd.com/20090309/microsoft-gets
    -brainy-new-board-member-maria
  • klawe-and-also-announces-13-cent-dividend/
  • http//www.anitaborg.org/about/who-we-are/maria-kl
    awe
  • SHIRLEY ANN JACKSON
  • http//www.rpi.edu/president/profile.html
  • http//www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id11554des
    cription
  • http//www.girls-explore.com/bios/shirley-jackson.
    php
  • http//www.strawberrylady.com/blackhistory/jackson
    /ShirleyAnnJackson.htm
  • Diane OConnell, Strong Force The Story of
    Physicist Shirley Ann Jackson, 2006
  • DREW GILPIN FAUST

32
EXCLUSION AND MARGINALIZATION Comparison between
tenured vs untenured faculty
  • Same resources
  • Same salaries
  • Same other material benefits
  • Received good support from their departments in
    their scientific endeavors
  • Felt included in departmental activities and
    intellectual networking
  • Junior women faculty, who have children, felt
    that demands of family are a potential obstacle
    to success in their careers
  • Committee did not collect data
  • Difference in salary
  • Exclusion of women faculty in positions of power
    and administrative responsibility within
    departments or within the broader MIT community
  • Apparent discrimination
  • Unequal access to space and resources
  • Non-democratic practices and administrative
    procedures, known only to a few, lead to unequal
    access to the substantial resources of MIT
  • Committee collected data and conducted interviews
    with women faculty and Department Heads

No apparent difference in treatment among
untenured faculty!!
32
33
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
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