Comprehend%20how%20the%20payload%20requirements%20drive%20the%20rest%20of%20the%20spacecraft%20design. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Comprehend%20how%20the%20payload%20requirements%20drive%20the%20rest%20of%20the%20spacecraft%20design.

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Understanding the Systems Engineering Process Comprehend how the payload requirements drive the rest of the spacecraft design. Know a spacecraft s major subsystems. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Comprehend%20how%20the%20payload%20requirements%20drive%20the%20rest%20of%20the%20spacecraft%20design.


1
Understanding the Systems Engineering Process
  • Comprehend how the payload requirements drive the
    rest of the spacecraft design.
  • Know a spacecrafts major subsystems.

2
Space-systems Engineering
  • Define payload.
  • Explain how payload requirements affect
    spacecraft design.
  • Describe the major spacecraft subsystems

3
The Systems-Engineering Process
4
Designing Payloads and Subsystems The Payload
  • The payload establishes spin-off requirements
    for the spacecraft bus
  • Where and how precisely the spacecraft must point
  • The amount of data the bus must process and
    transmit
  • How much electrical power the payload needs
  • The acceptable range of operating temperatures
  • The payloads volume and mass

5
Designing Payload and Subsystems The Spacecraft
Bus
  • The Spacecraft Bus exists solely to support the
    payload, with all the necessary housekeeping to
    keep it healthy and safe.
  • The best way to visualize the relationship
    between the payload and bus is to picture a
    common, everyday, school bus.

6
Designing Payloads and Subsystems Steering -
Spacecraft Control
  • On spacecraft, the subsystem that steers the
    vehicle is the Attitude and Orbit Control
    Subsystem (AOCS).

7
Designing Payloads and Subsystems
Communications and Data Handling (CDHS)
  • We can easily identify the driver on the school
    bus. Its the person in front, behind the
    steering wheel.
  • On a spacecraft, the driver is less easy to pick
    out, but its role is just as important.
  • The driver of the spacecraft bus is called the
    communication and data-handling subsystem (CDHS).

8
Designing Payloads and Subsystems Electrical
Power
  • Just like the school bus, spacecraft depend on
    electrical power to keep components running.
  • The electrical power on a spacecraft is no
    different from that used to run your television.
  • Therefore, a spacecraft must produce its own
    electrical power from some energy source, usually
    the Sun.

9
Designing Payloads and Subsystems Environmental
Control and Life-Support Subsystem (ECLSS)
  • The spacecrafts Environmental Control and
    Life-Support Subsystem (ECLSS) maintains the
    required temperature, atmosphere, and other
    conditions needed to keep the payload (including
    astronauts!) healthy and functional.

10
Designing Payloads and Subsystems Structures
and Mechanisms
  • A school buss structure holds it together.
  • A spacecrafts structure must be sturdy enough to
    handle all the stresses in space while holding
    all other subsystems in place.

11
Designing Payloads and Subsystems Propulsion
Subsystem
  • A school bus has an engine and drive train that
    supply torque to the wheels, moving the bus where
    the driver wants it to go.
  • In space we use rockets to expel mass in one
    direction, which causes the spacecraft to move in
    the other.
  • Large rockets on launch vehicles produce the
    thrust needed to get the spacecraft into orbit.
  • Once there, smaller rockets in its propulsion
    subsystem produce thrust to maneuver it between
    orbits and control its attitude.

12
The Design Process
  • The spacecraft design process shows how a
    spacecrafts subsystems depend on each other.
    When we adjust the design of one subsystem, were
    likely to have to adjust some, or all, of the
    others.

13
The Design Process Design and Analysis Tools
  • To help make complex design decisions, mission
    planners and systems engineers have many design
    and analysis tools in their toolkit.
  • These range from
  • simple back-of-the-envelope calculations using
    a pencil, paper, and calculator (or spreadsheet)
    to
  • complex computer simulations requiring hours of
    run time.

14
The Design Process Validating the Design
  • Too often, people responsible for specific
    subsystems get so involved in designing their own
    small piece of the mission that they lose sight
    of how their decisions affect other sub-systems
    and the missions overall performance.

15
The Design Process The Space Systems-
Engineering Process
16
Understanding the Systems Engineering Process
  • Comprehend how the payload requirements drive the
    rest of the spacecraft design.
  • Know a spacecrafts major subsystems.
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