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What is a system? Well Earth is a system that has several subsystems that allows Earth to work.

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Title: What is a system? Well Earth is a system that has several subsystems that allows Earth to work.


1
___________________________
  • What is a system? Well Earth is a system that
    has several subsystems that allows Earth to work.
  • A system is defined as group of interacting parts
    that form a complex whole.
  • Most Natural systems require energy that moves
    matter from one place to another.

2
Earth Systems
  • A system can be either
  • ____________________
  • ____________________

3
_______________________System
  • These systems are basically self contained.
    Meaning no matter will leave the system.
    Basically no exchange of _________________and
    ___________________ with the environment.
  • _________________is not a good example of a
    closed system.

4
_____________________System
  • This is what we see more in ______________________
    __Science.
  • Much more complex
  • Both _______________________and_____________ flow
    in and out of the system.

5
Closed and open systems
  • ___________________________ isolated and
    self-contained
  • __________________________________ exchanges
    energy, matter, and information with other
    systems
  • It is useful to think of _______________as a
    closed system.
  • But any system is open if we examine it closely
    enough or long enough.

6
With Systems You Get Feedback Loops!!
  • Positive or________________ Feedback Loops
  • Negative feedback loops are more common when
    dealing with living things.
  • Negative feedback, which seeks to reduce the
    input signal that caused it,
  • ____________ is a good example of a negative
    feedback loop. Meaning that your body does
    everything that it can to maintain itself.
  • Another good example When you are cold, What
    happens?

7
Feedback loops Negative feedback
  • ______________________ a circular process
    whereby a systems output serves as input to same
    system.
  • _______________________________, output acts as
    input moves system in opposite direction
    (stabilizes system)

8
Positive Feedback Loops
  • Much more common in Earth Science, especially
    when we talk about______________________!!!
  • Positive feedback seeks to increase the event
    that caused it.
  • A simple example is the ice-albedo positive
    feedback loop whereby melting snow exposes more
    dark ground (of lower albedo), which in turn
    absorbs heat and causes more snow to melt.

9
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10
Feedback loops Positive feedback
  • ____________________________________ output acts
    as input, moves system further in same direction,
    magnification of effects destabilizes system.

11
Earth Cycles
  • There are numerous materials that get naturally
    recycled on Earth.
  • _____________________________(discuss later)
  • ____________________________(discuss later)
  • ________________________________Cycle
  • _________________________________Cycle
  • ___________________________________Cycle

12
Nutrient (_______________) cycles
  • These describe how particular chemicals cycle
    through the biotic and abiotic portions of our
    environment.
  • ______________________________ elements and
    compounds organisms consume and require for
    nutrition and survival
  • A carbon atom in your body could have been part
    of a _________________________________million
    years ago.

13
Nutrient (biogeochemical) cycles
  • _______________________________are key nutrients.

Nitrogen 78 of atmosphere In proteins and
DNA In limited supply to organisms requires
lightning or bacteria to become usable A potent
fertilizer
Phosphorus In ADP and ATP for metabolism In
DNA and RNA In limited supply to organisms A
potent fertilizer
Carbon Key component of organic
molecules Atmospheric CO2 regulates climate
14
______________________Cycle
  • Carbon exists inorganically in the environment
    as
  • ______________________, a Greenhouse Gas
  • _______________________________________
  • _________________________( Limestone, Corals)
  • _________________________________________
  • _________________________________________soil.

15
________________________Cycle
  • __________________can exist organically as
  • Plants, Algae
  • Carbon is released into the atmosphere as
  • __________________________ ( in the form of CO2)
  • Burning of__________________________________
  • Decay (producing CO2 is oxygen is present, CH4 if
    oxygen is not present).

16
Carbon cycle - How _______moves
  • Producers pull _________________________(CO2)
    from the air use it in__________________________
    __________.
  • Consumers _____________producers and return
    CO2 to the air by respiration.
  • Decomposition of dead organisms, plus pressure
    underground, forms __________________rock and
    fossil fuels (largest pools of carbon). This
    buried carbon is returned to the air when rocks
    degraded or fossil fuels are used
  • _____________________use contribute to global
    warming
  • Ocean water also ________________carbon from
    multiple sources, eventually storing it in
    sedimentary rock or providing it to aquatic
    plants.

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_____________________impacts on the carbon cycle
  • We have increased CO2 in the atmosphere by
    burning ________________________and deforesting
    forests.
  • Atmospheric ____________concentrations may be the
    highest now in 420,000 years.
  • This is driving _________________warming and
    climate change.

19
The ____________________ cycle
  • How N moves through our environment
  • Atmospheric N2 is fixed (N fixation) by
    ______________ or specialized bacteria and
    becomes available to plants animals in the form
    of ammonium ions (NH4) from the air.
  • Nitrifying_______________________ turn
    ammonium ions into nitrite (NO2) and nitrate
    (NO3) ions. Nitrate can be taken up
    by__________________________.
  • Animals __________plants, and when plants and
    animals die, decomposers consume their tissues
    and return ammonium ions to the soil.
  • Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrates to
    gaseous nitrogen that ____________________ the
    atmosphere.

20
_____________________impacts on the nitrogen cycle
  • Haber and Bosch during WWI developed a way to fix
    nitrogen_________________________________.
  • Synthetic nitrogen _______________________ have
    boosted agricultural production since then.
  • Today we are _________________as much nitrogen
    artificially as the nitrogen cycle does
    naturally.
  • We have thrown the________________________________
    ____________.

21
Nitrogen and the________________
  • Excess _______________flowing down the
    Mississippi River into the Gulf
    causes______________________, worse in some
    regions than others.

From The Science behind the Stories
22
Nitrogen and the dead zone
  • The size of the hypoxic zone in the northern Gulf
    of Mexico, had grown since 1985, and was largest
    in___________________.

From The Science behind the Stories
23
Increasing nitrogen inputs
Amount of nitrogen fertilizer used rose greatly,
1950-80
Nitrate concentrations in Midwestern rivers in
1980-96 were much more than in 1905-07.
Figure 6.4
24
An environmental system
  • Mississippi River system
  • Emergent properties
  • ___________ of water, fish, pollution, etc.
  • Output to Gulf of Mexico
  • Understanding the dead zone requires viewing the
    Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico as a
    single system.

25
Creation of the hypoxic dead zone
  • Nitrogen input boosts ________________
  • which die and are ______________________
    __by microbes that suck oxygen from water,
    killing fish and shrimp.

Figure 6.5
26
Eutrophication
  • Key to the dead zone
  • ____________________________________
    excess nutrient enrichment in water, which
    increases production of organic matter...
  • which when decomposed by ________________-using
    microbes can deplete water of oxygen

27
__________________________
  • Since we do live on the Earth and we are going to
    study the Earth, we must have some understanding
    of basic geography.

28
Earths____________________
  • The Earth does not rotate straight on its axis.
  • Earth is tilted on its axis at about
    ___________________degrees.
  • This is very important in determining the
    ___________________________on Earth.

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30
____________________________
  • A continent is one of ________________________majo
    r land masses on the earth.
  • Africa,______________________, Asia, Australia,
    Europe,____________________, and__________________
    ______________

31
Continents
32
________________________
  • Until the year________________________, there
    were four recognized oceans the__________________
    _, Atlantic, Indian, and____________________. In
    the Spring of 2000, the International
    Hydrographic Organization delimited a new ocean,
    the _______________________________(it surrounds
    Antarctica and extends to 60 degrees latitude).

33
Oceans
34
Earths Grid System
  • A universal scheme to for locating points on the
    Earths Surface.
  • So how is this accomplished?
  • Through_____________________ and__________________
    ______________

35
____________________________
  • These are imaginary lines on the Earth that
    run north-south. These lines extend from pole to
    pole.
  • Then we have to look at halves these are great
    circles, these are the largest circle that can
    be drawn on a globe.
  • If we sliced the Earth on these great circles,
    then that would be classified as a hemisphere.

36
__________________________
  • These are halves of the Earth.
  • The Earth is broken down into the Northern
    Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere.
  • In addition the Earth can be broken down into the
    Eastern and Western Hemisphere.
  • We, in the United States, we are located in the
    __________________Hemisphere and in the
    _______________________Hemisphere.

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39
Back to Meridians
  • If you look at the globe, you will notice that
    the meridians are spaced further apart near the
    equator and has you move towards the poles, the
    meridians are more tightly packed together.

40
__________________________
  • These imaginary lines run ________________on
    the Earth. As the name suggests, these are
    parallel to each other.
  • The__________________ is the largest parallel.
  • The equator is located in the middle of the
    globe, it basically divided the Earth into the
    Northern and Southern Hemisphere.
  • The equator also plays a significant role in
    weather, it also is separated by the Corilois
    Effect.

41
__________________________
  • You are most likely more familiar with this.
  • Latitude is defined as distance, and is measured
    in degrees _________________and
    _______________________of the equator.
  • We use Parallels to show latitude.
  • The latitude for the equator is 0 degrees and the
    latitude for the poles are 90 degrees.

42
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43
____________________________
  • Defined as distance, also measured in degrees,
    but east and west in respects to
    the_____________________________________.
  • The zero line ( Prime Meridian) is completely
    arbitrary. So the Prime Meridian is located
    through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich,
    England.
  • The Prime Meridian is ________and distance is
    measured from 0 to 180 east or west to the Prime
    Meridian. Remember that the Earth is a circle
    and a circle is 360 degrees, thus 180 is only
    half of the globe, meaning a hemisphere.

44
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48
How to Properly Write a Coordinate?
  • When writing the coordinates of a particular
    location, always write the latitude first, make
    sure to specify______________________
  • Then write the longitude and specify______________
    _________.
  • But we are not done quite yet.
  • A degree of latitude and longitude can be divided
    into minutes and seconds.

49
___________________________
  • A minute is _______________th of a degree, so you
    can say that each degree of latitude is divided
    into 60 minutes.
  • A second is 1/60th of a minute, so you can say
    that each minute can be divided into 60 seconds.
  • Making these smaller division makes locating a
    place more precise.

50
Example on How to Read A Coordinate.
  • 40 45' 0? N, 14 29' 10? EMeans
    _______________degrees ___________minutes 0
    seconds ________________and_______degrees 29
    minutes 10 seconds______. means Degrees' means
    Minutes? means Seconds

51
Points On The Globe That Are Important
  • ______________________________0
  • ______________________________0
  • _______________________ 23.5 degrees N
  • _______________________ 23.5 degrees S
  • _________________________ 66 degrees N
  • __________________________ 66 degrees S

52
________________________
  • It is the northern most latitude at which the sun
    can appear directly overhead at noon. This event
    occurs at the June Solstice, when the northern
    hemisphere is tilted towards the sun to its
    maximum extent.
  •  The imaginary line is called the Tropic of
    Cancer because when it was named the sun was in
    the direction of the constellation Cancer ( the
    crab) at June Solstice

53
____________________________
  • The Tropic of Cancer is located at 23.5 North of
    the equator and runs through Mexico, the Bahamas,
    Egypt, Saudi Arabia, India, and southern China.

54
___________________________
  • It is the most southerly latitude at which the
    sun can appear directly overhead at noon. This
    event occurs at the December Solstice, when the
    southern hemisphere is tilted towards the sun to
    its maximum extent
  • The Tropic of Capricorn is so named because about
    2,000 years ago the sun was entering the
    constellation Capricorn ( goat horn) at the
    December Solstice.
  •  
  •  

55
___________________________
  • The Tropic of Capricorn lies at 23.5 South of the
    equator and runs through Australia, Chile,
    southern Brazil (Brazil is the only country that
    passes through both the equator and a tropic),
    and northern South Africa.

56
______________________
  • The Arctic Circle is a parallel of latitude on
    the Earth at approximately 66.5 degrees north
    from the equator. On the day of the northern
    summer solstice (around June 22 each year), an
    observer on the Arctic Circle will see the Sun
    above the horizon for a full 24 hours.

57
The Arctic Circle
  • Observers further north than the Arctic Circle
    will see the Sun remain above the horizon for
    many days, and at the north pole, there is a
    six-month 'day' that starts on the vernal equinox
    changing to a six-month 'night' on the autumnal
    equinox. The 66.5 degree angle comes from the
    tilt of the Earth's rotation axis (23.5), such
    that 90 - 23.5 66.5.

58
The Arctic Circle
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60
___________________________
  • The Antarctic Circle is a parallel of latitude on
    the Earth at approximately 66.5 degrees south of
    the equator. On the day of the southern summer
    solstice (around December 22 each year), an
    observer on the Antarctic Circle will see the Sun
    above the horizon for a full 24 hours.

61
The Antarctic Circle
  • Observers further south than the Antarctic Circle
    will see the Sun remain above the horizon for
    many days, and at the South Pole, there is a
    six-month 'day' that starts on the autumnal
    equinox changing to a six-month 'night' on the
    vernal equinox.
  • The 66.5 degree angle comes from the tilt of the
    Earth's rotation axis (23.5), such that 90 -
    23.5 66.5.

62
The Antarctic Circle
63
__________________________
  • The length of a degree of longitude depends on
    where the measurement is recorded.
  • Remember at the equator, that would be the
    greatest circle, because that is where the earth
    is the widest. Thus, so a degree E or W is
    approximately 69 miles ( 111km).

64
How Do We Come Up With That Number
  • Well the circumference of the Earth at the
    equator is about ___________________miles, thus
    if you divide the circumference of the Earth by
    that number you get 69.
  • So each degree __________________miles.

65
No So Easy Though
  • However, it gets trickyas you___________________
    __ in latitude, the parallels become smaller and
    the length of the degree of longitude becomes
    smaller.
  • For example at 60 degrees N, the distance of a
    degree diminish to about half of what it is at
    the equator, so at 0 degrees N, the degrees in
    miles is a about 35 miles.

66
Lets Practice.
  • The coordinates of Fort Walton Beach Florida is
    30.41N 86.61W
  • Notice that Latitude is written first, followed
    by longitude.
  • So we know that we are located in the North
    Western Hemisphere.
  • And we are not that far from the tropic of
    Cancer.

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  • Directions For each question below, select which
    letter matches the correct latitude and longitude
    coordinates on the map above.
  • 1. 20º South, 20º East
  • 2. 20º South, 100º East
  • 3. 20º North, 40º East
  • 4. 60º South, 40º West
  • 5. 10º South, 40º West
  • 6. 0º, 140º West
  • 7. 40º North, 100º West
  • 8. 80º North, 0º
  • 9. 40º North, 60º East
  • 10. 50º North, 120º East
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