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Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE

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Title: Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE


1
Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE
  • Tarbuck Lutgens

?
2
Chapter 7
Glaciers, Desert, and Wind
Concept 1 Define the key term glacier including
examples of different types and the locations
where they are found. Concept 2 Discuss glacial
movement and investigate the budget of a
glacier. Concept 3 Describe the features
produced by glacial erosion and
deposition. Concept 4 Examine the causal
theories of glacial ages including the glacial
events of the Pleistocene epoch. Concept
5 Discuss geological processes in arid climates,
including the development of the Basin and Range
region and examples of erosional and depositional
features produced by wind and water.
3
7.1 Glaciers
? A glacier is a thick ice mass that forms above
the snowline over hundreds or thousands of years.
The ice age was a period of time when much of
the Earth was covered in glaciers.
? Valley Glaciers
Ice masses that slowly advance down mountain
valleys originally occupied by streams.
A stream of ice that flows between steep rock
walls from near the top of the mountain valley.
4
7.1 Glaciers
? Ice Sheets
Ice sheets are enormous ice masses that flow
in all directions from one or more centers and
cover everything but the highest land.
Ice sheets are sometimes called continental
ice sheets because they cover large regions
where the climate is extremely cold.
They are huge compared to valley glaciers.
They currently cover Greenland and Antarctica.
5
Currently Continental Ice Sheets Cover Greenland
and Antarctica
6
7.1 Glaciers
? The movement of glaciers is referred to as
flow, and it happens in two ways.
1. Plastic flowinvolves movement within the ice
2. Basal slipslipping and sliding downward due
to gravity
? Budget of a Glacier
The glacial budget is the balance, or lack of
balance, between accumulation at the upper end of
a glacier and loss, or wastage, at the lower end.
7
How a Glacier Moves
8
Calving
9
7.1 Glaciers
? Many landscapes were changed by the widespread
glaciers of the recent ice age.
? How Glaciers Erode
Pluckinglifting of rock blocks
Abrasion
- Rock flour (pulverized rock)
- Striations (grooves in the bedrock)
10
7.1 Glaciers
? Glaciers are responsible for a variety of
erosional landscape features, such as glacial
troughs, hanging valleys, cirques, arêtes, and
horns.
? Glaciated Valleys
A glacial trough is a U-shaped valley that was
once V-shaped but was deepen by a glacier.
11
Erosional Landforms Caused by Valley Glaciers
12
7.1 Glaciers
? A cirque is a bowl-shaped depression at the
head of a glacial valley.
? Arêtes and Horns
  • Snaking, sharp-edged ridges called arêtes and
    sharp pyramid-like peaks called horns project
    above mountain landscapes.

13
Cirque
14
7.1 Glaciers
? Types of Glacial Drift
Glacial drift applies to all sediments of
glacial origin, no matter how, where, or in what
form they were deposited.
There are two types of glacial drift.
1. Till is material deposited directly by the
glacier.
2. Stratified drift is sediment laid down by
glacial meltwater.
15
7.1 Glaciers
? Glaciers are responsible for a variety of
depositional features, including
Moraineslayers or ridges of till
- Lateral
- Medial
- End
- Terminal end
- Recessional end
- Ground
16
Medial Moraine
17
7.1 Glaciers
? Glaciers are responsible for a variety of
depositional features, including
outwash plainssloping plains consisting of
deposits from meltwater streams in front of the
margin of an ice sheet
kettlesdepressions created when a block of
ice becomes lodged in glacial deposits and
subsequently melts
18
7.1 Glaciers
? Glaciers are responsible for a variety of
depositional features, including
drumlinsstreamlined, asymmetrical hills
composed of glacial dirt
eskersridges composed largely of sand and
gravel deposited by a stream flowing beneath a
glacier near its terminus
19
7.1 Glaciers
? Ice Age
Began 2 to 3 million years ago
Division of geological time is called the
Pleistocene epoch
Ice covered 30 of Earth's land area. (10
today)
Greatly affected drainage
http//www.sciencechannel.com/tv-shows/greatest-di
scoveries/videos/100-greatest-discoveries-periodic
-ice-age/ 147
20
Extent of the Northern Hemisphere Ice Sheets
21
7.2 Deserts
? Weathering
Much of the weathered debris in deserts
results from mechanical weathering.
Chemical weathering is not completely absent
in deserts. Over long time spans, clay and thin
soils do form.
Not as effective as in humid regions
? The Role of Water
In the desert, most streams are ephemeralthey
only carry water after it rains.
22
A Dry Stream Desert Channel Before and After a
Heavy Rainfall
23
7.2 Deserts
? Most desert streams dry up long before they
ever reach the ocean. The streams are quickly
depleted by evaporation and soil infiltration.
? Interior drainage into basins produces
alluvial fana fan-shaped deposit of sediment
formed when a streams slope is abruptly reduced
playa lakea flat area on the floor of an
undrained desert basin (playa) that fills and
becomes a lake after heavy rain
24
Alluvial Fans
25
7.2 Deserts
? Most desert erosion results from running water.
Although wind erosion is more significant in
deserts than elsewhere, water does most of the
erosional work in deserts.
26
7.3 Landscapes Shaped by Wind
? Wind erodes in the desert in two ways.
1. Deflation is the lifting and removal of loose
particles such as clay and silt. It produces
blowouts
desert pavementa layer of coarse pebbles and
gravel created when wind removed the finer
material
2. Abrasion wind-blown sand cuts and polishes
exposed rock surfaces (like sandblasting)
27
Desert Deflation
28
7.3 Landscapes Shaped by Wind
? The wind can create landforms when it deposits
its sediments, especially in deserts and along
coasts. Both layers of loess and sand dunes are
landscape features deposited by the wind.
? Loess
windblown silt that blankets the
landscape Thickest most extensive deposits in
western and northern China Found in the United
States Midwest
29
7.3 Landscapes Shaped by Wind
? Sand Dunes
Unlike deposits of loess, which form
blanket-like layers over broad areas, winds
commonly deposit sand in mounds or ridges called
dunes.
Begin near an obstruction such as a clump of
vegetation or rock. As the wind loses speed, the
sand particles drop out.
30
Sand dunes
  • Once the sand starts to mound up, it serves as
    its own obstruction and traps more sand.
  • Dunes are steeper on the sheltered side and more
    sloping on the inclined side facing the wind.
  • As the sheltered side becomes steeper, the sand
    eventually slides down the slope. This forms
    cross-bedding
  • Dunes migrate downwind.

31
A Dune in New Mexicos White Sands National
Monument
32
Cross Beds Are Part of Navajo Sandstone in Zion
National Park, Utah.
33
7.3 Landscapes Shaped by Wind
? Types of Sand Dunes
  • A sand dunes shape depends on mostly wind
    direction, but also wind speed, how much sand is
    available, and the amount of vegetation.

- Transverse dunes
- Barchan dunes
- Longitudinal dunes
- Barchanoid dunes
- Star dunes
- Parabolic dunes
34
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35
Environmental impact of humans on deserts- Large
desert cities- Soil salinization from
irrigation- Depletion of underground water
supplies- Large land disruption from mining-
Storage of toxic and radioactive waste-
Livestock overgrazing and off-road vehicles
destroys vegetation
36
Plant adaptations- Waxy-coated leaves small
leaves (spines)- Using deep roots or widely
spread shallow roots to collect water- Dropping
leaves during dry periods or becoming dormant
during dry periods
37
Animal adaptations
  • - Hiding in cool burrows
  • - Thick skin to conserve water
  • - Getting water from dew
  • Become dormant during periods of extreme heat or
    drought
  • - some nocturnal
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