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National Series Lecture 1 Introduction Kazakhstan


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Title: National Series Lecture 1 Introduction Kazakhstan

National Series Lecture 1 Introduction Kazakhstan
  • Bradford Disarmament Research Centre Division of
    Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK

Picture Image Transparent Globe by digitalart -
from http//
  • Where we are in the early 21st century
  • Outline of the following lectures
  • What we should know (learning outcome)
  • What we can do (policy contribution)

Picture Image Golden World In Hands by
jscreationzs- from http//www.freedigitalphotos.n
What is Life Science?
  • Any field of science that is leading to or has
    the potential to lead to an enhanced
    understanding of living organisms, especially
    human life.
  • E.g. Biology, proteomics, genetic engineering,
    nanotechnology, aerosol technology, chemistry and
  • (National Research Council, 2006 27)
  • Applied in
  • Public health, Medicine, Agriculture, Energy,
    Environment and National security studies

Biotechnology An integral part of national
strategy in the 21st Century
A growing market in Biotechnology the
pharmaceutical market (National Research
Council, 2006 85)
Region Annual Worth Share
North America 204 Billion 51
Europe 102 Billion 25
Japan 47 Billion 12
Asia, Africa, Australia 32 Billion 8
Latin America 17 Billion 4
  • Similar results in number of researchers and
    the amount of private investment for RD in the
    life sciences
  • Rapid growth in the Asia-Pacific and the Middle
  • (ErnstYoung 2011, FrostSullivan 2010)

Kazakhstan National Academy of Sciences
  • National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of
  • The National Academy of Sciences of the Republic
    of Kazakhstan was founded in 1946 as a state
    institution that joins active members
    (academicians), corresponding-members and leading
    scientists of the Republic.
  • The main activity of the Academy is scientific
    research, analysis and prognosis of science
    development priority directions of science
    development and scientific personnel training
    scientific and expert provision, formation and
    coordination of scientific programmes promotion
    of international cooperation, innovation and
    investment activity development.
  • Research is carried out in a number of areas,
    including earth sciences, mathematics,
    informatics, physics, remote sensing and space
    technologies, chemistry, new materials,
    biologically active substances, biochemistry and
    physiology of plants, botany, soil sciences,
    social and humanitarian sciences.
  • (IAP 2012)

Kazakhstan National Center for Biotechnology
  • National Center for Biotechnology of the Republic
    of Kazakhstan under the Science Committee of the
    Ministry of Education and Science (hereinafter -
    NCB) is the leading research center in the
    country, implementing the state policy on support
    and development of biotechnology sector. The
    Center coordinates and conducts government funded
    science and technology programs in the field of
    biotechnology, biosafety and ecology.
  • The research staff of NCB includes 350 highly
    qualified specialists in the field of
    biotechnology, molecular biology, genetics,
    biochemistry, microbiology, virology, immunology
    and pharmacology

PubMed search with Kazakhstan
  • Biotechnology. Theory and Practice scientific
    journal has been published by National Center for
    Biotechnology since 1997. The journal publishes
    fundamental and applied - character articles,
    which reflect research outcomes in the field of
    biotechnology of microorganisms, plants and
    animals and ecological, veterinary and medicine
    biotechnology in Kazakhstan and beyond.
  • The journal is included in the List of
    publishers, recommended by the Control Committee
    in the Sphere of Education and Science of
    Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic
    of Kazakhstan for publication of research
    activitys basic results. Its International
    Standard Serial Number is ISSN 1028-9399
  • Publication conditions and more detailed
    information is on the journals

Kazakhstan Scientific Collaborative Network
  • Kazakhstan Scientific Collaborative Network is a
    Website prototype, which presents scientific and
    technological research information and
    institutions in Kazakhstan. . This "Website" is
    the beginning of online network of institutions
    and researchers for exchanges of scientific and
    technological information.
  • The "Website" consists of information regarding
    academic institutions, national centers, NGO's,
    private research institutes, proceedings,
    research achievements, urgent issues to address
    and current debates. 
  • Website prototype was created under UNESCO
    programme on Teaching and Learning for a
    Sustainable Future and Cross-Disciplinary
    Partnerships and Increasing Access to Scientific
    Information within the framework of the 2001
    UNESCO Almaty Workplan for Science and in
    follow-up to the World Conference on Science

Investment Ministry of Industry and New
Technology of the Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Biotechnology
  • Currently, home-produced medicines are 11 in
    Kazakhstan (including 1.1 of vaccines),
    veterinary drugs are 78 , and the rest drugs are
    imported. The main problem for Kazakhstan is the
    lack of original domestic biotechnological
    medicines, although there are promising pilot
  • Development of starter cultures, enzymatic drugs,
    dietary supplements and probiotics for the food
    and processing industry is another priority of
  • The main task for industry development
    development and introduction of high technologies
    and competitive biotechnological products for
    health care and agriculture, environment
    protection, food and processing industry.

Investment Ministry of Industry and New
Technology of the Republic of Kazakhstan
  • Pharmaceutical Industry
  • Kazakhstan depends on import of pharmaceutical
    raw material (substances), equipment and packing
    materials significantly. As of 2010, Kazakhstan
    medicine output is 11.4 of common pharmaceutical
    market, export is 1.6 and import is 90.2.
  • Pharmaceutical industry of Kazakhstan depends on
    import of pharmaceutical raw material
    (substances), equipment and packing materials
  • As of June 1, 2011, 7 major large and medium
    pharmaceutical enterprises and plants have been
  • Niche projects of pharmaceutical industry are
    the following 1) Construction of plant on
    production of single-use medical goods of
    polymeric materials  Almaty 2) Construction of
    plant on production of infusion solutions, pills,
    capsules and syrups  Almaty region

Relevant Useful Information by the International
Science and Technology Center (ISTC)
  • The ISTC website provides a comprehensive work
    done by the institution in Kazakhstan.
  • Those include not only biological science
    capacity building but also other projects on
    nuclear and chemical fields.
  • ISTCs collaboration details with the National
    Biotechnology Center of Kazakhstan includes
  • K-1279 Artificial Seeds for Phytoremediation,  K-
    1279.2 Artificial Seeds for Phytoremediation,  K-
    1511 Wheat Yellow Rust,  K-1955 Obsolete
    Organic Pesticides in Kazakhstan,  K-415
    Anti-Fungal Biopreparations for Animals,  K-790
    Identification and Separation of Kazakhstan's
    Natural Products

Nanotechnology in Kazakhstan
  • Collaboration with Russia
  • The final documents were signed in Astana
    earlier today to set up a Russian-Kazakh
    Nanotechnology Venture Fund.
  • The fund, established in keeping with the
    agreements between President Dmitry Medvedev and
    his Kazakh counterpart, Nursultan Nazarbayev, is
    due to encourage the two countries joint effort
    to promote innovation in both nations.
  • The funds 100 million dollars will be invested
    in projects in Russia and Kazakhstan on a parity
    basis. Investments will be made in power
    production, including alternative sources of
    energy in oil and gas production,
    telecommunications, biotechnology, electronics
    and environment-oriented technologies. http//eng

Why do we care? Should this be an issue for us?
  • The dual-use nature of science and technology
  • Every major technology metallurgy, explosives,
    internal combustion, aviation, electronics,
    nuclear energy has been intensively exploited,
    not only for peaceful purposes but also for
    hostile ones.
  • Must this also happen with biotechnology,
    certain to be a dominant technology of the
    twenty-first century?
  • Matthew Meselson Professor of Molecular Biology
    at Harvard University
  • (Meselson, 2000 16)

Meselsons Forecast in 2000
  • Ability
  • Our ability to modify fundamental life processes
    continues its rapid advance
  • We will be able not only to devise additional
    ways to destroy life but will also become able to
    manipulate it
  • Dilemma
  • This has a Vast potential for beneficial
    application and could have inimical consequences
    for the course of civilization.

Meselsons Forecast in 2000
  • At present, we appear to be approaching a
    crossroads a time that will test whether
  • Will come to be intensively exploited for hostile
    purposes, or
  • Our species will find the collective wisdom to
    take a different course.

Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention
(BTWC) 1972
  • Article I
  • Each State Party to this Convention undertakes
    never in any circumstances to develop, produce,
    stockpile or otherwise acquire or retain
  • 1. Microbial or other biological agents or toxins
    whatever their origin or method of production, of
    types and in quantities that have no
    justification for prophylactic, protective or
    other peaceful purposes.
  • This applies not only to states but also to
    non-state actors

Science and Security Dual-Use
  • The need for a broader conceptualisation of
  • Biological agents and toxins can be used for
    hostile purposes without weaponization and
    technology is typically diffused globally for
    peaceful purposes
  • Hostile use can take the form of criminal acts or
    terrorist acts (non-state level) in parallel to
    military application (state level),
  • The BTWC prohibits the misuse of the life
    sciences by both states and non-state actors

Kazakhstan and international regimes
  • WMD
  • Kazakhstan inherited nuclear-tipped missiles, a
    nuclear weapon test site, and biological and
    chemical weapon production facilities when the
    Soviet Union collapsed. In its first decade of
    independence, Kazakhstan dismantled and destroyed
    Soviet weapons systems and facilities left on its
    territory, and signed major international
    nonproliferation treaties.
  • BTWC
  • Accession (15 June 2007)
  • Kazakhstan is home to a significant number of
    anti-plague facilities, that were part of the
    Soviet biological warfare (BW) effort. In June
    2007, Kazakhstan acceded to the Biological Toxin
    and Weapons Convention (BWC). Kazakh President
    Nazarbayev has declared Kazakhstan's commitment
    to biological weapons nonproliferation. However,
    the state is not yet a member of the Australia
  • (Nuclear Threat Initiative 2012)

Kazakhstan and international regimes
  • CWC
  • Signature (14 January 1993) Ratification (10
    December 1999)
  • Kazakhstan inherited one known chemical weapons
    production plant in the city of Pavlodar. This
    plant probably was designed to replace aging
    plants in Volgograd and Novocheboksarsk (Russia)
    for the production of the binary agent
    "novichok." The plant's construction was halted
    in 1987, after the Soviet Union became involved
    in CWC-related negotiations, so it never produced
    any chemical warfare agents. Kazakhstan joined
    the CWC in March 2000. However, Kazakhstan
    submitted a nil declaration, leaving out the
    Pavlodar facility.
  • (Nuclear Threat Initiative 2012)

National Series Lecture Outline
  • 2. Biosecurity Threats
  • 3. The Web of Prevention
  • 4. National Measures
  • 5. Responsibility of Scientists

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from http//
Reviewing threats (Lecture 2)
Natural outbreaks of infectious disease
Safety/accidental risks at laboratories
Manmade threats warfare, crime and terrorism
Unpredictable future of the life sciences
  • No single focal point of threats
  • Potential actors, material and information, which
    can be related to dual-use issues, exist at
    international, regional, national, local and
    individual levels.

The Web of Prevention (WoP) (Lecture 3)
  • To address natural outbreaks of infectious
  • Public health preparedness and response planning
  • To address safety/accidental risks
  • Laboratory regulations to safely manage
    dangerous pathogens and toxins, to prevent an
    accidental release into the environment and
    unauthorized access
  • To address manmade threats
  • Strong international arms control agreements with
    effective national implementation
  • Internationally coordinated export controls
  • Intelligence
  • Biodefense
  • To address the unpredictable future of the life
  • Oversight Review of security-sensitive science
    and technology developments
  • Responsible conduct in research through education

Natural threats
Safety risks
Manmade threats
Governance of science
National implementation (Lecture 4)
To National Context
National implementation (Lecture 4)
Worldwide engagement of life scientists with the
WoP will
The need for responsible conduct in
research (Lecture 5)
  • Effectively strengthen biosecurity measures by
    requiring the engagement of practicing scientists
  • Prevent unnecessary restriction of scientific

Engagement of informed life scientists about
biosecurity issues is key to successful security
  • Education of, and capacity building among,
    scientists on biosecurity issues is necessary for
    successful security
  • Uninformed scientists no effective science
    policy inputs to the WoP

Biosecurity Definition issues
  • The term biosecurity has been conceptualised
    differently across various scientific and
    professional disciplines
  • Areas The term has been used in ecology,
    agriculture, food supply, arms control and public
    health contexts, with different meanings and
  • Policy processes these overlap with
    interdisciplinary areas such as biosafety,
    counter-terrorism, agricultural biosecurity and
  • Linguistic In addition to these conceptual
    complications, biosecurity has also experienced
    linguistic complications
  • (Fidler and Gostin 2007, Sunshine Project 2003,
    Barletta 2002)

National Series WoP Biosecurity Education
Biosecurity Competency
  • The references cited in this lecture are viewable
    in the Notes section of this presentation.