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What is Immunity?


What is Immunity? Immunity is defined as the physiological mechanisms that allow our bodies to recognize materials as foreign or abnormal and to neutralize or ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is Immunity?

What is Immunity?
  • Immunity is defined as the physiological
    mechanisms that allow our bodies to recognize
    materials as foreign or abnormal and to
    neutralize or eliminate them.

Types of Immunity
  • Inherited Immunity
  • Naturally Acquired Immunity
  • Artificially Acquired Immunity

Inherited Immunity
  • Inherited Immunity Immunity to certain diseases
    is inherited

Naturally Acquired Immunity
  • Naturally Acquired Immunity
  • Active Exposure to a disease makes us sick, then
    we are immune to becoming ill with the same bug
    again (ex. Measles)
  • Passive A fetus receives protection from the
    mother through the placenta or an infant receives
    protection via the mothers milk.

Artificially Acquired Immunity
  • Active Injection of a causative agent, such as a
    vaccine for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) confers
    immunity. (Immunizations)
  • Passive Injection of protective material
    (antibodies) into the body that was developed by
    another individuals immune system.

Key Terms
  • Antibody Immunoglobulin (IG) that is secreted by
    plasma cells. Combines with the type of antigen
    that stimulated its production. Directs the
    attack against the antigen or the cell it is
    attached to.
  • Antigen Any foreign molecule that stimulates a
    specific immunity response.

White Blood Cells Immune System Warriors
  • Neutrophils
  • Basophils
  • Eosinophils
  • Lymphocytes
  • Monocytes
  • Platelets

Segmented and Band Neutrophils
  • Produced in the bone marrow
  • Function in
  • Phagocytosis
  • Release chemicals involved in inflammation
    (vasodilators and chemotaxins etc.)

  • Produced in the bone marrow
  • Release histamines and other chemicals involved
    in inflammation

  • Produced in the bone marrow
  • Functions
  • Destroy multi-cellular parasites
  • Participate in immediate hypersensitivity

  • Produced in the bone marrow
  • Functions
  • Phagocytosis and intracellular killing
  • Extracellular killing via secretion of toxic
  • Process and present antigens to Helper T-Cells
  • Secrete cytokines involved in inflammation in
    response to infection or injury.
  • Transform into macrophages.

  • Produced in the bone marrow, thymus and
    peripheral lymph glands
  • B-cells
  • Cytotoxic T-cells
  • Helper T-cells NK cells -Natural Killer Cells

NK Cells
  • Function in clotting of blood.

  • Red blood cell
  • Work to transport oxygen to our tissues.

Basic Mechanisms of Disease
  • Genetic Mechanisms
  • Tumors and cancer
  • Physical and chemical agents
  • Malnutrition
  • Autoimmunity
  • Inflammation
  • Degeneration
  • Pathogenic Organisms

Pathogenic Organisms
  • Prions Rogue proteins that recruit and
    convert normal proteins of the nervous system
    into abnormal proteins, causing loss of nervous
    system function.
  • Examples?

BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy)
  • Progressive neurological disorder of
  • cattle that results from infection by a prion.
  • The normal prion protein changes into a
    pathogenic form that damages the central nervous
    system of cattle.
  • Symptoms include a change in attitude and
    behavior, gradual uncoordinated movements,
    trouble standing and walking, weight loss
    despite having an appetite, and decreased milk
    production. Eventually the animal dies.

Pathogenic Organisms
  • Viruses Intracellular parasites that consist of
    a DNA or RNA core surrounded by a protein coat
    and sometimes a lipoprotein envelope. They
    invade human cells and cause them to produce
    viral components.
  • Examples?

Smallpox Virus
  • Smallpox is a serious,
  • highly contagious, and
  • sometimes fatal disease.
  • Thanks to the success of vaccination, the
    last natural outbreak of smallpox in the United
    States was in 1949.
  • Symptoms of smallpox usually appear within 7 to
    17 days after transmission of the smallpox virus
  • Once symptoms begin, the first smallpox symptoms
    may be hard to distinguish from the
    symptoms of other flu-like illnesses.
    After a couple of days, a person with
    smallpox symptoms will begin to develop a
    smallpox rash.

Pathogenic Organisms
  • Bacteria Tiny, primitive cells that lack
    nuclei. They cause infection by parasitizing
    tissues or otherwise disrupting normal
    physiological function.
  • Examples?

  • Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted
  • disease (STD). Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria
  • Symptoms include a burning sensation when
    urinating, or a white, yellow, or green discharge
    from the penis or vagina. Sometimes men with
    gonorrhea get painful or swollen testicles.

Pathogenic Organisms
  • Fungi Simple organisms similar to plants, but
    lacking in the chlorophyll that plants use to
    make their own energy. Because they cannot make
    their own food, fungi must parasitize other
    tissues, including those of the human body.
  • Examples?

Yeast Infections
  • Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is
  • a fungus that lives almost everywhere,
  • including in your body. Usually, your immune
  • system keeps yeast under control. If you are
    sick or taking antibiotics, it can multiply and
    cause an infection.
  • Yeast infections can occur in different parts of
    the body
  • Thrush is a yeast infection that causes white
  • patches in your mouth
  • Esophagitis is thrush that spreads to
  • your esophagus.
  • Vaginal yeast infections cause itchiness,
  • pain and discharge
  • Yeast infections of the skin cause itching and
  • Yeast infections in your bloodstream can be

Pathogenic Organisms
  • Protozoa Single-celled organisms that are
    larger than bacteria, whose DNA is organized into
    a nucleus. Many types of protozoa parasitize
    human tissues.
  • Examples?

  • Trypanosoma brucei organism causes the disease
    known as African Sleeping Sickness.
  • Trypanosoma brucei is transmitted to humans
    through either a vector (insect usually the
    tsetse fly) or the blood of ingested animals
  • Symptoms include headache, weakness, joint pain
    in the initial stages anaemia, cardiovascular
    problems, kidney disorders as the disease
    progresses in its final stages, the disease may
    cause exhaustion fatigue during the day,
    insomnia at night, coma, ultimately death
  • Disease affects as many as 66 million people in
    sub-Saharan Africa, but is not a large problem in
    developed countries.

Plasmodium falciparum
  • Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoic parasite,
    one of the species of Plasmodium that cause
    Malaria in humans
  • It is transmitted mosquitos. P. falciparum is
    the most dangerous of these infections as P.
    falciparum malaria has the highest rates of
    complications and mortality
  • In addition it accounts for 80 of all human
    malarial infections and 90 of the deaths. It is
    more prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa than in
    other regions of the world.

Plasmodium (Malaria)
Pathogenic Organisms
  • Pathogenic animals Large multicellular
    organisms such as insects and worms. Such
    animals can parasitize human tissues, bite or
    sting, or otherwise disrupt normal function.
    Many also serve as a vector for smaller
    pathogenic organisms.
  • Examples?

  • Human Tapeworm
  • infestations are becoming more prevalent in the
    United States. Tapeworms are a form of Intestinal
    Parasites, which requires a host to continue
  • Cooking meat and fish thoroughly and practicing
    good hygiene are two ways to prevent infestation.
  • A human can ingest the parasitic eggs by handling
    stool and unknowingly put their fingers
  • into their mouth, or they eat
  • unwashed fruit or vegetables
  • that were grown in contaminated
  • soil or irrigated by the
  • contaminated water.

Control and Treatment
  • Prions No known treatment
  • Viruses Antivirals?
  • Bacteria Antibiotics
  • Fungi Antifungals
  • Protozoa Antibiotics treatment of symptoms
  • Pathogenic Animals Antihelmenthics (for worms)
    / Prevention with sprays and clothing.

In Short
  • The best defense is a good offense your immune
    system is your offensive line!
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