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Endocrine System

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What is hypocalcemia and what are its effects? * Have students state the potential causes of these abnormalities and whether or not they can be treated. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Endocrine System


1
Endocrine System
2
Learning Objectives Endocrine System
  • Identify the endocrine glands and their hormones.
  • Gain an understanding of the functions of these
    hormones in the body.
  • Analyze medical terms related to the endocrine
    glands and their hormones.

3
Learning Objectives (contd.)
  • Identify abnormal conditions resulting from
    excessive and deficient secretions of the
    endocrine glands.
  • Describe laboratory tests and clinical procedures
    related to endocrinology, and recognize relevant
    abbreviations.
  • Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical
    terms in their proper contexts, such as medical
    reports and records.

4
The Endocrine System p. 746
  • Glands release hormones
  • Hormones regulate the many and varied functions
    of an organism
  • Hormones bind to receptors
  • Receptors are recognition sites in the various
    target tissues on which hormones act
  • http//study.com/academy/lesson/hormones-definitio
    n-function-intro-to-the-endocrine-system.html

5
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6
Two Types of Glands
  • ENDOCRINE glands
  • Secrete their hormones directly into the
    bloodstream
  • EXOCRINE glands
  • Send chemical substances (tears, sweat, milk,
    saliva) via ducts to the outside of the body.
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vVBwCBdd0ru8

7
Glands page 747
8
Thyroid Gland page 748
9
Thyroid Function page 748
  • Two hormones secreted by thyroid
  • thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine (T4)
  • triiodothyronine (T3)
  • Thyroid hormones aid cells in their uptake of
    oxygen and regulate metabolic rate

10
Thyroid Gland
  • Calcitonin stimulates calcium to leave the blood
    and enter the bone
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vbsM5-PV_ObQ
  • New hormone recently discovered

11
Thyroid Gland Hormones and Actions
12
Parathyroid Gland - page 749
13
Parathyroid Glands page 750
14
Parathyroid Function
  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  • causes calcium to mobilize from bones into the
    bloodstream

15
Adrenal Glands page 751
16
ADRENAL GLANDS
  • Each gland has two parts
  • an outer portion, the adrenal cortex
  • Secretes corticosteriods or steriods, chemicals
    derived from cholesterol
  • an inner portion, adrenal medulla
  • Secretes catecholamines
  • chemicals derived from amino acids

17
Adrenal CORTEX Secretes
  • Glucocorticoids influence metabolism of sugars,
    fats, and proteins (cortisol) and are
    anti-inflammatory (cortisone).
  • Influences--SUGAR
  • Mineralocorticoids regulate electrolytes
  • Aldosterone reabsorption of sodium/excretion of
    potassium. InfluencesSALT (and BLOOD PRESSURE)
  • Gonadocorticoids androgens and estrogens.
    Influences--SEX

18
Adrenal MEDULLA Secretes
  • Two types of catecholamine hormones
  • Epinephrine (adrenaline) increases heart rate
    and blood pressure, dilates bronchial tubes,
    releases glucose from storage
  • Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) constricts
    vessels to raise blood pressure

19
The Adrenal Cortexand Adrenal Medulla
20
Pancreas page 752
  • Located near and partially behind stomach
  • Exocrine and endocrine organ

21
Pancreas Function
  • islets of Langerhans produce
  • Insulin promotes movement of glucose into cells
    and promotes storage as glycogen
  • Glucagon promotes movement of glucose into the
    blood by breaking down glycogen stored in liver
    cells

22
Pancreas Function
23
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Pituitary Gland page 753
  • Pea-sized gland in depression of skull (sella
    turcica) also called the hypophysis
  • Anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)
  • Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
  • Hypothalmus controls secretions of the pituitary
    via releasing factors (hormones)

25
Pituitary Gland
26
Pituitary Function page 754
  • Anterior Pituitary secretes the following
    hormomes
  • Growth hormone (GH) increases bone and tissue
    growth
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH thyrotropin)

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Pituitary Function
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates
    cortisol secretion
  • Gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH)
  • Prolactin (PRL)

29
Pituitary Function (contd.)
  • Posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones
    synthesized in the hypothalamus
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH vasopressin)
    increases water reabsorption by kidneys
  • Oxytocin (OT)

30
Pituitary Gland Hormones and Actions page 755
31
Ovaries and Testes Hormones and Actions page
755-756
32
Table 18-2
  • See page 756 for summary of major endocrine
    glands, hormones they produce, and their actions.

33
COMBINING FORMS page 760
  • GLANDS
  • aden/o gland
  • adren/o adrenal glands
  • adrenal/o adrenal glands

Combining Form Meaning
34
Combining Forms
  • Combining Form Meaning
  • gonad/o sex glands (ovaries, testes)
  • pancreat/o pancreas
  • parathyroid/o parathyroid gland

35
Page 760 - Glands
  • pituitar/o pituitary gland
  • thyr/o thyroid gland
  • thyroid/o thyroid gland

Combining Form Meaning
36
Combining Forms - Page 760-761
  • andr/o male
  • calc/o, calici/o calcium
    (hypocalcemia)
  • cortic/o cortex, outer region
  • crin/o secrete (endocrine)

Combining Form Meaning
37
Combining Forms
  • Combining Form Meaning
  • dips/o thirst (poly dipsia)
  • estr/o female
  • gluc/o, glyc/o sugar (hyperglycemia
    )

38
Glands - Page 761
Combining Form Meaning
  • home/o sameness
  • hormon/o hormone
  • kal/I potassium (an electrolyte)

39
Glands
  • Combining Form Meaning
  • lact/o milk
  • myx/o mucus
  • natr/o sodium

40
Glands - Page 762
Combining Form Meaning
  • phys/o growing
  • somat/o body (somatotropin)
  • ster/o solid structure

41
Glands
  • Combining Form Meaning
  • toc/o childbirth
  • toxic/o position
  • ur/o urine

42
Suffixes - page 763
Suffix Meaning
  • -agon assemble, gather together
  • -emia blood condition
  • -in, -ine a substance

43
Suffixes
  • Suffix Meaning
  • tropin stimulating the function of
  • -uria urine condition

44
Prefixes - page 763
  • eu- good, normal (euthyroid)
  • hyper- excessive, above
  • hypo- deficient, below
  • oxy- rapid, sharp, acid

Prefix Meaning
45
Prefixes
  • Prefix Meaning
  • pan- all
  • tetra- four
  • tri three

46
QUICK QUIZ
  • Which term means a blood condition of too little
    potassium?
  • hyperkalemia
  • hypocalcemia
  • hypercalciuria
  • hypokalemia

47
Thyroid Abnormalities page 764
  • Goiter Enlargement of the thyroid
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vSVSBo065hmw

48
Thyroid Abmormalities
  • Hypersecretion
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Graves disease Autoimmune
  • Exophthalmos and proptosis

49
Thyroid Abnormalities
  • Hyposecretion
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Myxedemaswelling of the skin and underlying
    tissues giving a waxy consistency, typical of
    patients with underactive thyroid glands.
  • Cretinism characterized by physical deformity, dw
    arfism, and mentalretardation, and often by goiter
    .
  • Neoplasms
  • Thyroid carcinoma

50
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51
Thyroid carcinoma
52
Parathyroid Abnormalities page 765
  • Hypersecretion
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Loss of bone density
  • Kidney stones
  • Hypercalcemia
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vsD9st1ZPFrQ

53
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54
Parathyroid Abnormalities
  • Hyposecretion
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Deficient production of parathyroid hormone leads
    to hypocalcemia which leads to tetany

55
Abnormalities of Adrenal Cortex page 766
  • Hypersecretion
  • adrenal virilism excessive androgens
  • amenorrhea (absence of menstruation),
    hirsutism, acne, voice deepening
  • Cushing syndrome excessive cortisol
  • Obesity, moon-face, thoracic fat deposition

56
hirsutism
57
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58
Abnormalities of Adrenal Cortex
  • Hyposecretion
  • Addison disease low cortisol and aldosterone
    levels
  • hyponatremia, fatigue, weakness, low blood
    pressure

59
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60
Abnormalities of Adrenal Medulla page 767
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Benign tumor of adrenal medulla
  • Excess epinephrine and norepinephrine
  • Hypertension, palpitations, severe headaches,
    sweating, flushing of the face, and muscle spasms

61
Abnormalities of the Pancreas
  • Hypersecretion
  • Hyperinsulinism excessive secretion of insulin
    causing
  • Hypoglycemia, convulsions, fainting

62
Pancreas
  • Hyposecretion
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of
    insulin in promoting sugar, starch and fat
    metabolism in cells
  • Type 1 childhood onset typically
  • Type 2 adult onset typically

63
Comparison of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
64
Abnormalities Pituitary Gland (Anterior Lobe)
  • Hypersecretion
  • acromegaly
  • gigantism
  • Hyposecretion
  • dwarfism
  • panhypopituitarism

65
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66
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67
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68
Abnormalities Pituitary Gland (Posterior Lobe)
  • Hypersecretion
  • Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)
  • Excess ADH
  • Excess water retention
  • Hyposecretion
  • Diabetes insipidus
  • Deficient ADH
  • Polyuria and polydipsia

69
Review Abnormal Conditions of Endocrine Glands
page 748
70
Laboratory Tests page 748
  • Fasting blood sugar (FBS)
  • Measures circulating glucose in a patient who has
    fasted at least 4 hours
  • Serum and urine tests
  • Measures hormones, electrolytes, glucose, etc. in
    blood and urine as indicators of endocrine
    function
  • Thyroid function tests
  • Measures T3, T4, and TSH in the bloodstream

71
Clinical Procedures page 749
  • exophthalmometry
  • computed tomography (CT) scan
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head
  • radioactive iodine uptake
  • thyroid scan
  • ultrasound examination

72
QUICK QUIZ
  • What is the pathologic condition in which
    enlargement of the extremities is caused by
    hypersecretion of the anterior pituitary after
    puberty?
  • Addison disease
  • acromegaly
  • Cushing syndrome
  • Graves disease
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