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Sub-Sahara Africa: The Land

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Sub-Sahara Africa: The Land Ch. 20 Sec. 1 Sub-Sahara Africa: The Land Ch. 20 Sec. 1 Highland Features Plateaus make a series of steps make up most of Africa Edges of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sub-Sahara Africa: The Land


1
Sub-Sahara Africa The Land
  • Ch. 20 Sec. 1

2
Sub-Sahara Africa The Land
  • Ch. 20 Sec. 1

3
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4
Highland Features
  • Plateaus make a series of steps? make up most of
    Africa
  • Edges of plateaus are escarpments (cliffs)
  • Most are lt20 miles from coast (Map on p. 501)
  • Hard to travel inland from coast (bad for
    exploration)

5
Highland Features
  • Rivers plunge down escarpments making cataracts
    (waterfalls)

Victoria Falls b/w Zambia Zimbabwe
6
Highland Features
  • Africa has highest overall elevation than any
    other continent
  • But still few mountains
  • Mts. included in Eastern highlands
  • Ethiopian Highlands, and volcanoes Mt.
    Kilimanjaro and Mt. Kenya

7
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8
Highland features
  • Ruwenzori Mts.
  • Divide Uganda Dem. Rep. of the Congo
  • Covered in snow and clouds
  • Drakensberg Range
  • South Africa
  • Lots of national parks, wetlands

9
Drakensberg Range 11,420 ft.
- Barrier of Spears in Zulu
Tugela Falls Worlds 2nd tallest Waterfall
10
Great Rift Valley
  • Stretches from Syria to Mozambique
  • Formed by shifting tectonic plates (what kind??)
    millions of yrs. ago
  • Volcanoes earthquakes continue to shape region
    TODAY

11
6,000 Miles Long!
12
Great Rift Valley
  • Forms two branches
  • Eastern branch volcanic cones
  • Western branch lakes
  • Lake Tanganyika (2nd lgst. freshwater 2nd
    deepest in world)
  • Lake Malawi (mt. rimmed, gt2,300 feet deep)
  • Lake Victoria (2nd widest in world, but shallow
    source of White Nile)

13
Water Systems
  • Lakes rivers come from basins formed millions
    of yrs. ago as land uplifted
  • Travel from plateaus in center of cont. to the
    sea
  • Hit escarpments ? waterfalls ? near impossible
    to navigate inland/ up river

14
Water Systems
  • Lake Chad
  • West-central Africa
  • 20 mil. ppl in 4 countries depend on it
  • Faces desertification (droughts natural
    climate)
  • So shallow, affected greatly by climate ?s
  • 1960s 26,000 km² 2000 1,500 km²

15
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16
Water Systems
  • Lake Volta
  • Man-made (1 of lgst. in world)
  • Flooded 700 villages displaced 70,000 to create
  • Used for irrigation, fishing, hydroelectric power
    (Akosombo Dam) for major aluminum plant and ppl
    of Ghana

17
Water Systems
  • Niger River
  • great river? main artery in W. Africa
  • 2,600 miles long (3rd in Africa)
  • Forms arc across 5 countries
  • Vital for irrigation transportation
  • Splits into Niger Delta in Nigeria (150 X 200
    miles)

18
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19
Water Systems
  • Zambezi River
  • Many waterfalls (Victoria Falls- 355 foot drop
    2X size of Niagra)
  • Congo River
  • Meets sea at deep, navigable estuary (only one in
    Africa)
  • Largest network of navigable water in Africa
  • But still has major waterfalls rapids

20
Physical Barriers
  • Sahara prevents travel from North Africa to
    South/Central Africa
  • Western deltas were treacherous to sail inland
  • Eastern highlands made travel inland difficult
    (cliffs)
  • Europeans controlled coastal trade and Africans
    controlled inland trade

21
Natural resources
  • Mineral resources are abundant
  • Plentiful oil reserves
  • Various metals across region
  • S. Africa has ½ worlds gold, also found
    elsewhere
  • Major diamond deposits

22
Natural Resources
  • Water is ABUNDANT
  • The problem lies with harnessing power (physical
    financial problems)
  • Congo River- More potential hydroelectric power
    than U.S.
  • Africa holds 25 of the worlds potential for
    hydroelectricity, but uses less than 10 of it.
  • More development is occurring
  • Kenya installed 20,000 rural solar power systems
    from 86-96
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