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Energy Efficiency

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Title: Energy Efficiency


1
Energy Efficiency
  • Less energy, same service

2
A Watt Saved is a Watt Earned
  • Theres no cheaper, cleaner power than the power
    that you dont have to produce Gary Zarker

3
End Use/ Least-Cost Thinking
  • Most people dont demand kilowatt-hours of
    electricity or barrels of oil, but rather the
    end-use services they providelighting,
    air-conditioning, mobility

4
  • Traditionally, electric companies have been in
    the business of supplying electrons from giant,
    centralized systems to gain economies of scale.
  • Many have realized that it is more profitable to
    help their customers save electricity than to
    sell them more of it (thus losing economies of
    scale).

5
Energy Policy Act of 2003
  • Requires a 20 reduction in federal building
    energy use by 2013.
  • Adds funding for energy efficient programs for
    public buildings.
  • Increases fuel efficiency standards for federal
    vehicles.
  • Authorizes 3.4B for each fiscal year through
    2006 for the Low Income Housing Assistance
    Program.
  • Expands the energy star program.
  • Establishes new efficiency standards for
    commercial and consumer products.

6
Tunneling Through The Cost Barrier
  • By the time the design for most human artifacts
    is completed but before they have actually been
    built, about 80-90 percent of their lifecycle
    costs have already been committed.1

7
Effective Designs Are Not Optimized in a Vacuum
  • Designs in nature are optimized in coevolution
    with the ecosystem.
  • For the same reason, an engineer cannot design an
    optimal fan except as a part of an optimal
    cooling system which in turn is a function of the
    building it is in (optimally designed considering
    the neighborhood, culture, climate)

8
Start Downstream to Turn Compounding Losses into
Savings.
  • Manufacturing carpet requires melting bitumen by
    means of a hot oil pumping loop.
  • Engineers optimize pipe size in isolation by
    comparing the extra cost of a fatter pipe with
    the energy it can save through less pumping.
  • Redesigning this pumping loop cut Interfaces
    power requirements from 70.8 to 5.3 kW
    (substituting 7 for 95 horsepower pump a 92
    energy reduction), cost less to build, and worked
    better in every way.

9
Principles applied to gain the efficiency
  • Big Pipes (fat, short and straight), small pumps
    (not the other way around)
  • Lay the pipes first, then the equipment (not the
    other way around)

10
Benefits
Counted 92 less pumping energy Lower capital costs 70kW less heat loss from pipes Not counted Less space, weight, noise Easier maintenance Longer equipment life
11
Why This Matters
  • Motors use 3/5 of the worlds electricity.
  • Pumping is the biggest use of motors.
  • Most of the motors energy is spent fighting
    friction.
  • Saving one unit of friction in the pipe saves 10
    units of fuel at the power plant.
  • Almost every energy-using system has been
    mis-designed in the same way.2

12
Tunneling Through The Cost Barrier, Revisited

MC
Cost barrier
MB
Cummulative Energy savings
13
Energy loss or Energy
Saving?
14
Energy loss or Potential Saving?
  • Typical industrial pumping system contains so
    many compounding losses that about 100 energy
    units of fossil fuel will deliver only ten energy
    units of flow out of the pipe.
  • -OR-
  • Saving one unit of energy furthest downstream
    (reducing friction in the pipes) avoids enough
    compounding losses to save ten units of fuel,
    cost, and pollution back at the power plant.

15
Downstream First
  • This compounding effect enables each successive
    component, as you go back upstream, to become
    smaller, simpler and cheaper.
  • Downstream savings merit the greatest emphasis
    because they reduce both energy and capital costs.

16
Do things in the Right Order
  • so as to maximize their favorable interactions.
  • E.g. Retrofitting lighting and AC
  • Do lights first
  • Require a smaller AC

17
New Construction
  • Government Use
  • The federal government is the single largest user
    of energy.
  • Energy costs can be up to ten percent of the
    governments operating budget
  • State and local governments spend up to 11
    billion dollars annually on fixed-site energy
    costs

18
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19
  • Office Buildings and Retail
  • Retail and office buildings account for
    thirty-five percent of energy use and sixty
    percent of annual electricity use
  • Thirty-seven percent of total energy costs in
    retail buildings is lighting
  • Office equipment make up sixteen percent of the
    total energy used by an office building

20
Building to Increase Energy Efficiency
  • Instead of viewing a potential new building as a
    collection of parts, using whole-building design
    is the best way to achieve maximum energy
    efficiency.

21
Materials to Achieve Energy Efficiency
  • HVACNatural gas-powered absorption
    chillers/heaters radiant floor heating passive
    solar heating
  • Daylighting
  • Biodegradable materials, sustainably harvested
    wood, low water use equipment
  • Window Glazing, compact fluorescent lighting
  • Building-integrated photovoltaic panels
  • Fuel Cells
  • Insulation

22
Costs
  • Most estimates in building a green building is
    five to ten percent more than a regular building
  • The Cambria Office building in Pennsylvania cost
    an estimated 93 per square foot.
  • Additional costs to the Lockheed Building 157 was
    2 million.
  • The ING Bank put its green costs at 700,000.

23
Benefits
  • In general, a 40-50 reduction in energy costs
    can be expected.
  • Lockheed Building 157 experienced annual savings
    of 500,000.
  • ING Bank yielded savings of 2.6 million in the
    first year.
  • In addition, both companies reported absenteeism
    down by 15
  • In some cases, retail stores have reported up to
    a 25 increase in sales in daylit portions of
    stores.

24
  • By optimizing a buildings standard components
    such as the site, windows, walls, floors, and
    mechanical and electrical systems, one can
    substantially reduce energy use and costs without
    a drastic increase in construction costs

25
Energy Efficient Solutions
  • can reduce the energy bill for many homeowners
    and businesses by 20 to 30 percent.  
    eesi_at_eesi.org http//www.eesi.org/publications/Fac
    t20Sheets/EEREBudget2004.htm

26
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27

28
Energy Efficiency
  • The largest energy savings to date have been
    accomplished by energy efficiency standards and
    by targeted incentives for products currently
    available in the marketplace.
  • For example, appliance efficiency standards
    adopted to date will cut U.S. electric peak
    demand in 2020 by 120,000 MW, or over 12, while
    saving some 200 billion

29
Energy Efficiency
  • Applies to everything from the building envelope,
    which includes energy efficient windows,
    insulation, foundation, and the roof, to
    appliances, lights, and air-conditioning systems.
  • It also applies to space heating and cooling
    systems, which are aided through the use of
    automated controls, ventilation, improved duct
    systems, and other advanced technologies.
  • Energy efficiency can also apply to water heating
    when combined with water-efficient appliances and
    fixtures that will save water, energy, and money.
    http//www.nrel.gov/buildings/pv/h_energy_solar.h
    tml

30
Thermal Envelope
  • A house's thermal envelope includes its roof,
    walls, floors, windows and doors in other words,
    every item that separates the inside from the
    outside.

31
Insulation
  • Insulation is measured in terms of its resistance
    to heat loss or "R-value." Twice the R-value
    means half the heat loss, so higher R-values are
    generally desirable.
  • Never compress insulation as this reduces the air
    spaces that keep the warmth in.
  • Walls and Floors In addition to your attic,
    insulating under the floor, around hot water
    pipes and heating ducts, and in crawl spaces will
    make a big difference in your energy bills.
  • Patch cracks and insulate in heated basements.
  • If unheated seal spaces around heating vents and
    other openings to the heated part of the house
    (but be careful not to block vents that allow
    moisture to escape!).
  • Before you remove old insulation, check to make
    sure it's not asbestos.

32
Leaks and Drafts
  • The potential energy savings draft reduction may
    range from 5 to 30 per year, and the home is
    generally much more comfortable afterwards.
  • Just the gaps around windows and doors in an
    average American house are the equivalent of a 3
    foot by 3 foot hole in the wall!

33
Attics
  • Start by making sure your attic is well
    insulated. This step alone can save 20-35 in
    heating costs and up to 35 on air-conditioning
    costs.
  • Seal holes with caulk or compressed fiberglass
    insulation.
  • Adding roof vents (otherwise your attic will
    trap hot air in the summer).
  • Weather-strip or caulk around doors and windows.

34
Seal leaks
  • Around electric switches and outlets. And choose
    vinyl or wood frames instead of aluminum framing.
  • Stop air from escaping under outside doors with
    easy-to-install "sweeps" or "shoes.
  • Seal gaps around loose window panes with window
    putty.
  • Weatherization reduces an average home's energy
    costs by 218 a year. For every dollar spent,
    weatherization returns 1.40 in energy savings
    over the life of the measures.

35
Curtains and Drapes
  • An effective way to shield out the sun during the
    summer, especially if they are lined with a white
    backing.
  • For keeping warm during the winter months,
    consider installing storm windows or new
    double-pane windows.

36
U-level
  • The National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC)
    label. It should be 0.35 or lower.
  • Choose high-efficiency options such as windows
    with low-e coatings or argon filling.
  • These can greatly reduce the tremendous amount of
    heat that escapes through typical single-pane
    windows.

37
Cool Savings The Super-Efficient Refrigerator
  • Refrigerators commonly account for as much as 20
    of household electricity use.
  • A coalition of electric utilities and
    environmental organizations recently challenged
    American manufacturers to design a super
    efficient refrigerator that minimized the use of
    ozone-depleting CFCs. They succeeded. That means
    if you're in the market for a new refrigerator in
    the next few years, you may be able to choose one
    that uses as much as 30 less energy than
    competing models and contains 90 fewer ozone
    depleting materials.

38
A Bright Idea The Compact Fluorescent
  • Fit in most household fixtures and give off the
    same warm, steady light as incandescents, but use
    only a quarter of the energy!
  • Compact fluorescents are initially more
    expensive, but each bulb lasts 10X as long as
    incandescent, and saves as much as 30 - 40 in
    energy costs over its life.
  • Energy for lighting accounts for about 10 of
    your electric bill

39
Shop for Efficiency
  • One of the best ways you can help change the way
    America uses energy is by being an energy-smart
    consumer.
  • When it's time to retire an old appliance, you
    can typically replace it with a new model that
    uses only half the energy.
  • Even though high efficiency models may cost
    extra, most will more than make up the difference
    in energy savings over their lifetime.

40
Appliances
  • If you live in a typical U.S. home, your
    appliances are responsible for about 20 of your
    energy bills. Refrigerators, freezers, clothes
    washers, dryers, dishwashers, and ranges and
    ovens are the primary energy-using appliances in
    most households (hot water heaters are discussed
    in the Water Heating section). Taking steps to
    save energy while using these appliances, and
    replacing old inefficient appliances with modern
    ones, can save you money.

41
Look for energy-saving features.
  • Labels on most major household appliances tell
    you how the energy costs for a particular model
    compare to those for similar models.
  • Air conditioners - An "EER" rating of 12 is good,
    14 or more is excellent. Consider your specific
    needs appropriate size and model of appliance,
    oversized air conditioner or water heater
    wasting energy and money.
  • An air-dry setting can cut the energy use of a
    dishwasher by 40
  • Clothes washers w/ adjustable water levels
    dryers with moisture sensors cool-down cycles
    also save energy.

42
ENERGY STAR
  • A government-backed program
  • Protect the environment through superior energy
    efficiency.
  • Last year alone, Americans, with the help of
    ENERGY STAR, saved enough energy to power 20
    million homes and avoid greenhouse gas emissions
    equivalent to those from 18 million cars - all
    while saving 9 billion.

43
Energy Star new homes are designed to save 30 of
HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning)
and hot water. These two end uses typically make
up around 60 of the total bill, so the Energy
Star new home will save about 20 of the total
bill. These homes have no restrictions, or rules
about the appliances and gadgets that the owners
can bring in, so there are no savings in these
areas.
44
Energy Star new homes are designed to save 30 of
HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning)
and hot water. These two end uses typically make
up around 60 of the total bill, so the Energy
Star new home will save about 20 of the total
bill. These homes have no restrictions, or rules
about the appliances and gadgets that the owners
can bring in, so there are no savings in these
areas.
45
If you were to retrofit an existing home with the
equivalent measures used in an Energy Star new
home by making HVAC and hot water improvements
and bringing in efficient appliances, you
conceivably could realize greater savings than an
Energy Star New Home, depending on the quality of
your retrofit job.
46
Retrofits on existing housing are generally more
expensive than incorporating the same efficiency
measure into the construction of a new home, and
they may not work as well, depending on the
quality of work. Visit our Home Energy Advisor to
see the potential savings from retrofiting your
house... http//hes.lbl.gov/hes/answerdesk_dat.htm
l
47
Energy Efficient Choices
  • Can save families about a third on their energy
    bill with similar savings of greenhouse gas
    emissions, without sacrificing features, style or
    comfort.
  • If looking for new household products, look for
    ones that have earned the ENERGY STAR. They meet
    strict energy efficiency guidelines set by the
    EPA and US Department of Energy.

48
The typical household spends 1,400 a year on
energy bills. With ENERGY STAR, you can save up
to 30 or more than 400 per year.
49
Small Things Big Savings
  • Switch off unused lights
  • choose the right appliance for the job
  • clean the lint filter in your dryer after every
    use.
  • Keep heating and air conditioning systems
    properly maintained and tuned. This includes
    changing air filters and keeping air conditioner
    coils clean and straight.
  • programmable thermostats can reduce the energy
    used for air conditioning or heating by 5 to 30.
    I
  • install low-flow showerheads and faucet aerators,
  • wash full loads in your dishwasher and use short
    cycles for all but the dirtiest dishes

50
(3) Wrap your water heater in a water heater
blanket, especially if it's located in an
unheated part of the house. Also insulate hot
water pipes leaving the heater. Set the
temperature at 120 degrees for normal use for
dishwashers without temperature boosters, set the
water heater at 140 degrees. (4) Save water and
the energy needed to heat water.
51
(c ) set the appropriate water level for
different size loads in your clothes washer, wash
in cold water when practical, and always rinse in
cold. (5) Set the temperature of your
refrigerator at 38 to 42 degrees Fahrenheit your
freezer should be set at 0-5 degrees Fahrenheit.
Use the power-saver switch if your refrigerator
has one and make sure the door seals tightly.
52
http//www.nrdc.org/air/energy/ghome.as When
buying or replacing products or appliances for
your home, look for the EPA ENERGY STAR label
the national symbol for energy efficiency
53
Landscaping
54
Utility Incentives
  • Rebates, grants, or other financial assistance
    are offered by an energy utility for the design
    and purchase of certain energy-efficient systems
    and equipment. These financing mechanisms are
    not mutually exclusive, i.e., an organization may
    use several of them in various combinations. The
    most appropriate set of options will depend on
    the type of organization (public or private),
    size and complexity of a project, internal
    capital constraints, in-house expertise, and
    other factors.

55
Market Incentives
  • 1.5 cent/kw-hour tax credit. The federal
    government and states have been active in
    developing market incentives for renewable
    generationProduction tax credits were created
    by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. For every
    kilowatt-hour of electricity produced from wind,
    closed-loop biomass, and poultry waste,
    generators receive a 1.5 cent/kilowatt-hour tax
    credit.Renewable Portfolio Standards require a
    certain percentage of a utility's electricity
    sales or generating capacity to be produced from
    renewable resources. Each state defines
    "qualifying renewables" to suit its particular
    situation.

56
Public Benefits Funds
  • are created through the collection of a minimal
    fee per kWh of electricity purchased.
  • The funds can be applied to green power research,
    development, demonstration, and project
    development in the state. These funds, are found
    primarily in states that have restructured their
    electric markets in order to assure continued
    support of renewables, energy efficiency, and
    low-income support programs.

57
Net-Metering Rules
  • Allow electricity consumers to get credits or
    deductions for excess electricity generated
    on-site. In essence, electricity is allowed to
    flow both to and from the electric grid. Some
    states restrict eligibility to particular
    customer classes.

58
Corporate tax incentives
  • allow corporations to receive credits or
    deductions ranging from 10 percent to 35 percent
    against the cost of equipment or installation to
    promote renewable energy equipment. In some
    cases, the incentive decreases over time.

59
Property tax incentives
  • typically follow one of three basic structures
    exemptions, exclusions, and credits. The majority
    of the property tax provisions for renewable
    energy follow a model that omits the added value
    of the renewable device from the valuation of the
    property for taxation purposes. Property taxes
    are collected locally, so some states allow the
    local authorities the option of providing a
    property tax incentive for renewable energy
    devices.

60
Grant programs
  • are offered in some states to encourage the use
    and development of renewable energy technologies.
    Most of these grant programs offer support for a
    broad range of renewable energy technologies,
    while some focus on promoting a particular type
    of renewable energy technology.

61
Rebate programs
  • are offered at the state, local, and utility
    levels to promote the installation of renewable
    energy equipment. Most rebate programs are
    available from state agencies and municipally
    owned utilities, and support solar water heating
    and/or photovoltaic systems. Eligible sectors
    usually include residents and businesses,
    although some programs are available to industry,
    institutions, and government agencies as well.
    Rebates typically range from 150 to 4000. In
    some cases, rebate programs are combined with low
    or no-interest loans.

62
Loan programs
  • offer financing for the purchase of renewable
    energy equipment. Utility loan programs for
    renewables are offered primarily by municipally
    owned utilities. State governments also offer
    loans to assist in the purchase of renewable
    energy equipment. A broad range of renewable
    energy technologies is eligible. In many states,
    loans are available to residential, commercial,
    industrial, transportation, public, and nonprofit
    sectors.

63
Direct equipment sales
  • are offered by a few utilities. The utilities
    sell renewable energy equipment to their
    customers as part of a buy-down, low-income
    assistance, lease, or remote power program.

64
Mainstay Energy Rewards Program - Green Tag
Purchase Program Last DSIRE Review 09/16/2003  
Incentive Type  Production Incentive Eligible
Technologies   Solar Thermal Electric,
Photovoltaics, Wind, Biomass, Geothermal
Electric, Small Hydroelectric, Renewable Fuels
Applicable Sectors   Commercial, Residential
Amount  1-100 per MWh total production
Varies by technology and contract length
Terms  Any size system, grid tied, new
renewable (1/1/99 or later) Website  
http//www.mainstayenergy.com/ SummaryMainstay
Energy is a private company offering customers
who install, or have installed, renewable energy
systems the opportunity to sell the green tags
(also known as renewable energy credits, or RECs)
associated with the energy generated by these
systems.
65
The GREEN TAG is a set of environmental benefits
resulting from not generating the same
electricity from fossil fuels, such as coal or
natural gas. The renewable electricity offsets
non-green power that would otherwise have been
generated and delivered to the power grid.  The
green tag also represents the fact that the
renewable energy was generated with better
emissions, or pollution, characteristics, than
normal electricity.
66
For example, 1,000 megawatt hours (MWh) generated
at an average US power plant will result in the
release of approximately 700 tons of CO2, 4 tons
of sulfur dioxide, 2 tons of nitrous oxides, and
additional amounts of carbon monoxide, mercury,
and other pollutants.  All of these emissions are
detrimental to the air, water, climate of the
earth. The same 1,000 MWh from wind or solar
generation produces no emissions. 
67
Mainstay Energy has services for selling green
tags from small and medium scale renewable
facilities, which help bring revenues back to the
owners of those installations.  This encourages
further development of renewable installations
and technologies. The electricity generated by
the renewable project is consumed onsite or sold
(via net metering) separately from the green
tags. No environmental claims can be made for
this power because the green tag now represents
the entire package of environmental benefits
associated with these specific megawatt hours. 
For example, a renewable energy installation
which has sold its green tags may not claim to be
"renewable powered".  However, it could use
language describing itself as "hosting renewable
energy."
68
These green tags will be brought to market as
Green-e certified products. Through the Mainstay
Energy Rewards Program, participating customers
receive regular, recurring payments.  The amount
of the payments depends on the type of renewable
energy technology, the production of electricity
by that system, and the length of the contract
period. Mainstay offers 3-, 5-, and 10-year
purchase contracts. The longer the contract
period, the greater the incentive payment on a
/kWh basis. Typical payments, which are made
quarterly, are as follows  - Solar PV 2/kWh -
5/kWh (estimated 50 - 250/year for residential
systems, 300 - 3000/year for commercial)  -
Wind 0.2/kWh - 1.5/kWh  - Biomass/biofuel
electric 0.1/kWh - 1/kWh  -
69
Geothermal/Low-impact hydro 0.2/kWh - 1/kWh
 There is a 100 Certification Fee to get
started with Mainstay Rewards. This fee does not
need to be paid in cash the fee may be paid with
future green tag sales. However, this fee is
generally waived for participants who opt for the
10-year contract.  The requirements are   1.
The system must be grid-connected, but does not
need to be a net "exporter" of electricity  2.
This incentive is available in addition to any
net metering agreement with the utility  3. The
system owner must still have title to the green
tags, or renewable energy credits. They cannot
have been sold or transferred to any other
entity
70
4. The system must be a new renewable, which in
most states means powered up on or after 1/1/1999
(Texas September 1999). This date is different in
some states, see the Mainstay Energy web site for
exceptions 5. The system generation must be
metered separately for any systems over 10kW. For
systems under 10kW, separate metering is not
necessary. Payments are made based on estimated
production. Mainstay Energy is the first company
in the U.S. to purchase green tags from
small-scale renewable producers on a national
scale. The Mainstay Rewards Program currently has
about 200 participants -- both commercial and
residential.    Contact Hoyt Hudson Mainstay
Energy 161 E. Chicago Ave. Suite 41B Chicago,
IL 60611-2624 Phone (877) 473-3682 Fax (312)
896-1515 E-Mail hoyt.hudson_at_mainstayenergy.com
Web site http//www.mainstayenergy.com/index.php

71
Solar and Wind-Powered Energy Systems Exemption
Last DSIRE Review 07/17/2003   Incentive
Type  Property Tax Exemption Eligible
Technologies   Solar Water Heat, Solar Space
Heat, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Thermal
Process Heat, Photovoltaics, Wind, Biomass
Applicable Sectors   Residential Amount  100
Max. Limit  None Terms  N/A Website  
http//www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/re_incentives.htm
Authority 1   Texas Statutes and Codes 1C_at_11.27
Date Enacted  1981 SummaryThe Texas property
tax exemption allows an exemption from taxation
of the amount of the appraised value of the
property that arises from the installation or
construction of a solar or wind-powered energy
device that is primarily for the production and
distribution of energy for on-site use.
    Contact Pam Groce Comptroller of Public
Accounts State Energy Conservation Office 111
East 17th Street, Room 1114 Austin, TX 78774
Phone (512) 463-1889 Fax (512) 475-2569
E-Mail pam.groce_at_cpa.state.tx.us Web site
http//www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us
72
Net Metering Last DSIRE Review 05/13/2003  
Incentive Type  Net Metering Rules Eligible
Technologies   Photovoltaics, Landfill Gas,
Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, Geothermal
Electric, Tidal Energy, Wave Energy Applicable
Sectors   Commercial, Industrial, Residential
Limit on System Size  50 kW Limit on Overall
Enrollment  None Treatment of Net
Excess  Purchase not to exceed avoided cost
Utilities Involved  Applies to all PTB REPs,
TDUs, and integrated IOUs that have not unbundled
in accordance with Public Utility Regulatory Act
39.051. Does not apply to municipal utilities,
river authorities, or electric coops. Authority
1   PUC Substantive Rule 25.242(h)(4) Date
Enacted  9/23/85 Expiration Date  None
SummaryTexas' net metering rule (i.e.,
Arrangements Between Qualifying Facilities and
Electric Utilities 25.242(h)(4)) was
established by the Public Utility Commission of
Texas to promote small wind power and
photovoltaic generation in the state. The order
requires certain utilities to offer a net
metering option to qualified facilities of 50 kW
or less that use renewable resources. The rule
applies to all Texas price-to-beat retail
electric providers (PTB REPs), transmission
distribution utilities (TDUs), and integrated
investor-owned utilities that have not unbundled
in accordance with Public Utility Regulatory Act
39.051. This rule does not apply to municipal
utilities, river authorities, or electric
cooperatives. For customers of qualifying
utilities, the utility must install a single
meter that can read electric flow in both
directions. There is no statewide limit on the
number of customers or total capacity under the
net metering program.   
73
San Antonio City Public Service - Distributed
Generation Program Last DSIRE Review
05/05/2003   Incentive Type  Net Metering Rules
Eligible Technologies   Photovoltaics, Landfill
Gas, Wind, Biomass, Hydroelectric, Geothermal
Electric, Tidal Energy, Wave Energy Applicable
Sectors   Commercial, Residential Limit on
System Size  25 kW Limit on Overall
Enrollment  None Treatment of Net Excess  1.65
cents per kilowatt-hour (kwh) during non-summer
months and 2.02 cents per kwh from June through
September Website   http//www.citypublicservice
.com/for_business/products/distributed_generation
.asp Authority 1   Rider E5 - Customer-Owned
Distributed Generation Renewable Energy Service
Application Effective Date  Spring 2002
SummaryCPS' distributed generation rate allows
customers who produce energy at their home or
business to receive credit for any excess
electricity they put back into the CPS power
grid. To qualify, CPS electric customers must own
and operate on-site DG facilities and produce up
to 25 kilowatts (kw) or 25 kilovolt amperes (kva)
to be compensated for the excess electricity they
generate.   The electrical generation equipment
must be powered by renewable energy sources  -
The sun (directly or indirectly)  - Moving water
(waves, tides or hydroelectric facilities)  -
Wind  - Geothermal sources  - Biomass and/or
biomass-based waste products (including landfill
gas)  
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If the customer uses more energy than their DG
system produces, the additional electricity
consumed is billed at regular CPS rates. Any
excess energy produced in the month and put back
into the CPS grid earns credit based on seasonal
avoided energy costs. Electricity put back into
the CPS grid earns credits of 1.65 cents per
kilowatt-hour (kwh) during non-summer months and
2.02 cents per kwh from June through September.
The credit appears on the following month's bill.
 Customers are responsible for  - The costs of
interconnection with CPS and system protection
facilities. CPS must make sure energy flowing
from DG customers' equipment is compatible with
the electric system.  - The costs of any
additional equipment such as a distribution
transformer, service line and/or meter facilities
required for the interconnection with CPS.  
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Customers interested in taking advantage of the
DG rate must fill out an application. All
customer equipment -- up to the service point --
will be inspected by the City of San Antonio to
ensure compliance with City of San Antonio codes.
  For more information, please visit the CPS
Distributed Generation website or call (210)
353-2815.    Contact Karma Nilsson City Public
Service 7000 San Pedro San Antonio, TX
78216-6208 Phone (210) 353-2815 E-Mail
KLNilsson_at_cps-satx.com Web site
http//www.citypublicservice.com
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Rural Development grant funds could be used to
pay up to 25 percent of the eligible project
costs. Applications for renewable energy systems
were allowed for a minimum grant request of
10,000, but no more than 500,000. Applications
for energy efficiency improvements were allowed
for a minimum grant request of 10,000, but no
more than 250,000. Eligible projects included
those that derive energy from a wind, solar,
biomass, or geothermal source, or hydrogen
derived from biomass or water using wind, solar,
or geothermal energy sources.  Contact
Information Specialist - RBS United States
Department of Agriculture Rural
Business-Cooperative Service USDA/RBS, Room
5045-S, Mail Stop 3201 1400 Independence Avenue
SW Washington, DC 20250-3201 Phone (202)
690-4730 Fax (202) 690-4737 E-Mail
webmaster_at_rurdev.usda.gov Web site
http//www.rurdev.usda.gov/rbs
77
April 01, 2004DOE Awards 128.2 Million to
Weatherize Homes in 30 States and the Navajo
NationSecretary of Energy Spencer Abraham
announced on April 1st the award of 128.2
million to 30 states, plus the Navajo Nation, to
improve the energy efficiency of the homes of
low-income families. Such families spend an
average of 14 percent of their income on energy,
compared with 3.5 percent for the average U.S.
family.
78
The program is delivered through the states and
970 local agencies, and gives priority to
low-income households with elderly members,
people with disabilities, and children. The
funding for DOE's Weatherization Assistance
Program in fiscal year 2004 is 227 million,
which is expected to cover the weatherization of
about 94,450 homes. President Bush has requested
291.2 million for the program in fiscal year
2005. See the Weatherization Assistance Program
Web site.http//www.eere.energy.gov/news/news_det
ail.cfm/news_id6779
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Austin Energy green power sales 1 in the
country price is also lowest in U.S. Austin
Energy sold more than 289 million kilowatt-hours
of renewable energy last year, significantly more
than second place Portland General Electric with
188.6 million kWh and more than twice that of
third ranked Sacramento Municipal Utility
District (SMUD) which had 143.1 million kWh in
green power sales.
80
Last year, the Austin Independent School District
became the largest subscriber of renewable energy
by a school district in the nation and the
largest subscriber to Austin Energy's GreenChoice
program subscribing for 45 million kWh of green
power annually. Also last year, Concordia
University in Austin became the first college in
the nation to subscribe to 100 of its annual
electricity needs from green power.
81
Current subscriptions to GreenChoice total almost
370-million kWh with 287 businesses and 7,200
residential customers participating. Forty-one
Austin companies subscribe to 1 million kWh or
more of green power and 257 companies subscribe
to green power for 100 of their power needs. In
fact, Austin Energy has more companies that
qualify for a U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency green power recognition program than are
currently enrolled in the program nationwide.
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Austin Energy was also one of the first utilities
in the nation to provide a fixed cost component
in its green power program as a hedge against the
rising fossil fuels costs. GreenChoice
subscribers see the fuel charge on their utility
bill replaced by a GreenChoice charge that stays
fixed for the 10-year life of our green power
contracts. Last year, the Austin City Council
approved the purchase of an additional 93
megawatts of wind-generated electricity, almost
doubling Austin Energy's existing 101 MW of
renewable energy. http//www.treia.org/news.php?an
chorat100gohere
83
With the success thus far of the states
Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requiring the
installation of 2,000 megawatts of new renewable
energy capacity by 2009, Texas has shown how a
well crafted statewide policy can get results.
While our construction of over 1,000 of those
megawatts of capacity by the end of 2003 is
impressive, as a percentage of overall statewide
electric demand (over 60,000 MW at peak), weve
barely scratched the surface. And several other
states have now made percentage commitments that
significantly exceed our modest 3 beginning.
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The time has come to expand our energy base.
During this time of celebrating Texas
independence, let us resolve as Texans to
encourage our leaders to commit to the expansion
of our Renewable Portfolio Standard to no less
than 10 at the earliest possible date. TREIAs
analysis shows that achieving 20 renewables by
2020 is eminently doable, and for the health of
our state highly desirable.
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  • The Rocky Mountain Institute
  • http//www.rmi.org
  • Natural Capitalism
  • http//www.natcap.org/
  • Department of Energy
  • http//www.eere.energy.gov/
  • Sustainable Buildings Industry Council
  • http//www.sbicouncil.org/
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