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What causes Climate ?

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Two main factors that causes Climate - Temperature (cold or warm climate) Precipitation (dry or humid ... can be divided into 3 Temperature Zones Tropical ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What causes Climate ?


1
What causes Climate ?
  • Text Book page 470 - 477

2
  • Weather The condition of Earths atmosphere at a
    particular time and place.
  • Climate The average, year after year, conditions
    of temperature, precipitation, winds and clouds
    in an area.
  • Microclimates Climate conditions within a small
    area that differ from those in the surrounding
    area.
  • Examples parks, cities, areas near lakes or
    ponds, gardens, etc.

3
Two main factors that causes Climate -
  • Temperature (cold or warm climate)
  • Precipitation (dry or humid climate)

4
Factors Affecting Temperature
  • Latitude
  • Altitude
  • Distance From Large Bodies of Water
  • Ocean Currents

5
Latitude
  • Latitude The distance in degrees north or south
    of the equator.
  • Based on latitude Earths surface can be divided
    into 3 Temperature Zones
  • Tropical Zones warm climates
  • Temperate Zones ranging temperatures
  • Polar Zones cold climates

6
Temperature Zones of Earth
Polar Zone
Polar Zone
7
  • Temperature Zones of Earth

8
Altitude
  • Altitude elevation above sea level
  • High land areas have cooler climates
  • For example Mt. Kilimanjaro, in East Africa is
    covered with snow all year round although it is
    near equator (3 degrees south latitude.
  • Higher altitudes cooler temperatures
  • Lower altitudes warmer temperatures

9
Distance From Large Bodies of
Water
  • Marine Climates warmer winters and cooler
    summers
  • Where? Much of the west coast of North America,
    South America, and Europe.
  • Continental Climates colder winters and warmer
    summers (extreme temperatures)
  • Where? Most of Canada and Russia, Central United
    States.

10
Ocean Currents
  • Ocean Currents- Streams of water within the
    oceans that move in regular patterns.
  • Oceans and lakes can affect temperatures /
    climate
  • 3 examples Gulf Stream (warm water currents),
    North Atlantic Drift (brings milder and humid air
    to Ireland and Southern England) , California
    Current (cool water current)

11
Major Ocean Surface Currents
12
Factors Affecting Precipitation
  • Prevailing Winds
  • Presence of Mountain Ranges
  • Seasonal Winds

13
Prevailing Winds
  • movement of air masses caused by directional
    winds in a region
  • The amount of water vapor in an air mass
    influences how much rain or snow will fall
  • The amount of water vapor in the prevailing wind
    depends on where the wind comes from

14
Mountain Ranges
  • Air forced up the mountain cools, condenses, and
    creates clouds
  • Falls as precipitation on windward side (The side
    of the mountain that faces the wind).
  • Leeward side (the side of the mountain range that
    faces away from the oncoming wind) of mountain
    has drier conditions.

15
Seasonal Winds
  • Similar to sea or land breezes, but occurs over
    wider area.
  • Monsoons are type of seasonal winds.
  • Monsoons Sea or land breeze over a large region
    that changes direction with the seasons.
  • Thailand and part of India get most of the rain
    from the summer monsoons.
  • The winter monsoons winds brings very little rain
    to same regions.

16
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