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Therapies for Psychological Disorders

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Chapter 13 Therapies for Psychological Disorders * What is Therapy? Therapy: General term for any treatment process In psychology and psychiatry - a variety of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Therapies for Psychological Disorders


1
Chapter 13
  • Therapies for Psychological Disorders

2
What is Therapy?
  • Therapy General term for any treatment process
  • In psychology and psychiatry - a variety of
    psychological and biomedical techniques aimed at
    dealing with mental disorders or coping with
    problems of living

3
Contemporary Approaches to Therapy
  • Psychological therapies Based on psycho-logical
    principles (rather than biomedical approach)
  • Often collectively called psychotherapy

4
Contemporary Approaches to Therapy
  • Biomedical therapies Focus on altering the
    brain
  • Drugs
  • Psychosurgery
  • Electroconvulsive therapy

5
How Do Psychologists Treat Mental Disorders?
6
Insight Therapies
  • Insight therapies (talk therapies)
    Psychotherapies in which the therapist helps
    others understand (gain insight) their problems
    (emotions, thoughts)
  • Humanistic focus on positive growth self
    actualization (may be blocked by unhealthy
    environment)
  • Client-centered therapy Emphasizes healthy
    psychological growth through self-actualization
    (Rogers)
  • Active Listening Paraphrasing clients words to
    capture the emotional tone expressed
  • Unconditional positive regard nonjudgmental and
    respect for client

7
Insight Therapies
  • Psychodynamic uncover unconscious conflicts
    through dream interpretation, free association,
    transference
  • Analyzing and interpreting the patients
    relationship with the therapist
  • Cognitive therapy - Emphasizes rational thinking
    as the key to treating mental disorder
  • Cognitive therapy for depression (Aaron Beck)
  • Confront destructive thoughts that support it
  • Can be at least as effective as medication

8
Behavioral Therapy
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Systematic desensitization Anxiety is
    extinguished by gradually exposing the patient to
    an anxiety-provoking stimulus
  • Exposure therapy patient directly confronts the
    anxiety-provoking stimulus (as opposed to
    imagining it)
  • Aversion therapy Present an attractive stimulus
    with unpleasant stimulation in order to condition
    a repulsive reaction
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Token economies distribution of tokens
    contingent on desired behaviors

9
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy A Synthesis
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy
  • Modify irrational thoughts
  • Set attainable behavioral goals
  • Develop realistic strategies to attain goals
  • Evaluate results
  • Rational-emotive behavior therapy irrational
    thoughts and behaviors are the cause of mental
    disorders (REBT)
  • Albert Ellis strong approach, no acceptance of
    irrational thoughts, may be a heated interaction
  • Not the events in our lives its the beliefs
    that we hold that cause us to become depressed,
    anxious, enraged, etc.

10
How Is the Biomedical Approach Used to Treat
Mental Disorders?
11
Drug Therapy
  • Psychopharmacology The prescribed use of drugs
    to help treat symptoms of mental illness to
    ensure that individuals are more receptive to
    talk therapies
  • Antipsychotic drugs
  • Include chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and
    clozapine
  • Usually affect dopamine pathways (reduce it)
  • May have side effects
  • Tardive dyskinesia Incurable disorder of motor
    control resulting from long-term use of
    antipsychotic drugs
  • Video clip

12
Drug Therapy
  • Antidepressants and mood stabilizers
  • Usually increase serotonin/norepinephrine
  • (MAO) inhibitors increase norepinephrine
  • Tryicyclics inhibit reuptake
  • SSRIs Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor
    (Prozac)
  • Lithium carbonate treats bipolar (can be toxic)
  • Highly controversial suicide, using just when
    uneasy

13
Drug Therapy
  • Antianxiety drugs
  • Barbiturates relax central nervous system
  • Benzodiazepines decrease activity in anxiety
    regions of brain (Valium, Xanax)
  • Do not
  • Use to relieve ordinary anxieties of everyday
    life
  • Take for more than a few days at a time
  • Combine with alcohol
  • Stimulants suppress activity level
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Side effects growth, sleep, later use

14
Other Biomedical Methods
  • Psychosurgery The general term for surgical
    intervention in the brain to treat psychological
    disorders
  • The infamous prefrontal lobotomy is no longer
    performed
  • Severing the corpus callosum, however, can reduce
    life-threatening seizures
  • Electroconvulsive (ECT) therapy used for
    treatment of severe depression
  • Side effect memory disruption
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) a
    possible alternative to ECT, less memory loss -
    treatment of depression, schizophrenia, and
    bipolar

15
Hospitalization and the Alternatives
  • Therapeutic community Program of treating
    mental disorder by making the institutional
    environment supportive and humane for patients
  • Deinstitutionalization Policy of removing
    patients, whenever possible, from mental
    hospitals
  • Community mental health movement Effort to
    deinstitutionalize mental patients and to provide
    therapy from outpatient clinics

16
Evaluating the Psychological Therapies
  • Eysenck proposed that people with non-psychotic
    problems recover just as well with or without
    therapy
  • Reviews of evidence have shown
  • That therapy is better than no therapy
  • It appears advantageous to match specific
    therapies with specific conditions

17
Mental First Aid
  • If someone asks you for help, keep in mind that
    serious problems (especially those involving
    suicide or threats) require immediate
    professional treatment
  • Otherwise, your best tools may involve
  • Listening
  • Acceptance
  • Exploring alternatives
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