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Protestant

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Protestant Reformation – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Protestant


1
Protestant
  • Reformation

2
Christian Humanism
  • Erasmus
  • Promoted Philosophy of Christ
  • Christianity should educate people on how to live
    day by day
  • Wrote Praise of Folly
  • Criticized parts of society that needed reform

3
Corruption
  • Corruption ran rampant in the Christian Church in
    the middle ages.
  • Indulgences certificate issued by the Church
    that reduced or cancelled punishment for sins.
  • Some corrupt salesmen said Indulgences would
    relieve them of guilt for future sins.

4
Martin Luther
  • Born in 1483, in Eisleben, Saxony (Germany)
  • Middle-class family, Law school

5
Luther
  • Joined monastery after almost hit by lightning
  • Very troubled monk
  • guilty feeling
  • Read St. Paul to the Romans He who through faith
    is righteous shall live
  • Interpreted this as people are good through faith
    (in Gods mercy and love)
  • Known as Justification by Faith
  • Luther felt born again no more guilt

6
Path to a New Religion
  • Wittenberg, Germany 1517
  • 95 Theses
  • Criticized the Church for indulgences and other
    practices
  • The Theses were quickly published and distributed
  • Result Indulgence sales dropped.

7
Reaction
  • 1520 Pope condemns Luther, banned his
  • works
  • 1521 Luther is excommunicated
  • Diet of Worms (council of German Princes that met
    in Worms Germany) They asked Luther to take
    back his teachings, but he refused to recant

8
  • He was taken into hiding at a castle in Wartburg
    where he translated the New Testament of the
    Bible into German.

9
Lutheranism
  • Salvation by Faith alone
  • Bible is the only source of religious truth
  • preaching rather than ritual
  • Language of the people, not Latin
  • Church was not a hierarchy, but a community
  • Vocations callings to serve God and neighbor

10
Calvinism
  • Following Lutheranism, Switzerland begins to take
    part in the Reformation via Calvinism.
  • Founder John Calvin
  • Reformer in Swiss city of Geneva
  • Calvin studied theology, law, and humanism as a
    youth.
  • Developed own Protestant theology
  • 1526-publishes Institute of the Christian
    Religion
  • Gives him popularity as a leader

11
Calvins Beliefs
  • God was all powerful
  • Controlled every aspect of Past, Present, and
    Future
  • Predestination - God determined fate of every
    person

12
City of God
  • Transformed Geneva into ideal religious
    theocratic city
  • Consistory council of 12 elders that controlled
    almost every aspect of citizens lives

13
Regulations SPread
  • Required attendance at multiple church services a
    week
  • Homes were inspected regularly
  • Fighting, swearing, drunkenness, gambling etc.
    were all against the law.
  • Strict punishments were handed out for rules
    violations
  • Missionaries trained in Geneva sent out to spread
    the word
  • Strongest followers in the Netherlands and
    Scotland
  • By mid 1500s, Calvinism surpasses Lutheranism in
    importance

14
The Church of England (Anglicanism)
  • King Henry VIII
  • Wanted to divorce his 1st wife, Catherine of
    Aragon because she could not give him a son
  • The Pope at the time would not let him annul
    (make invalid) his marriage
  • Result Henry went around the Pope and achieves
    annulment through his own English church courts
  • 1534 Act of Supremacy
  • States that the King is the head of the Church of
    England

15
The Church of England (Anglicanism)
  • Many consider the Anglican church to be
    open-minded
  • Ex. women can be ordained as priests
  • The Queen of England still is considered to be
    the Supreme Head of the Church

16
Anabaptists
  • Did not like the states power over religion
  • Believed in separation of church and state
  • Believed that the church was a voluntary
    community in which everyone was equal
  • Everyone was considered to be priests
  • Chose their own leader
  • Ridiculed/ persecuted by other religions

17
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