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Human Reproductive System Review

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Human Reproductive System Review Male Reproductive System Sperm Formation MEIOSIS forms sperm ( male gametes) Sperm forms in testes Scrotum kept 5 cooler than rest ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Reproductive System Review


1
Human Reproductive System Review
2
Male Reproductive System
3
Sperm Formation
  • MEIOSIS forms sperm ( male gametes)
  • Sperm forms in testes
  • Scrotum kept 5 cooler than rest of body
  • Semen is sperm plus protecting fluid
  • Semen leaves testes through the epididymis and
    then vas deferens (sperm ducts) to the urethra
    before it exits.

4
Secondary Sexual Characteristics - Male
  • Produced by testosterone
  • Deeper voice
  • Chest and facial hair
  • Lengthen bones
  • Increased size of testes for sperm production

5
Female Reproductive System
6
Ovum Formation
  • MEIOSIS forms the eggs (ova)
  • Eggs are formed before birth
  • 1 egg per month is matured and released from
    ovaries, most of the time
  • Eggs travel through the fallopian tube where they
    may become fertilized
  • If not, a mature female will menstruate and begin
    cycle again

7
Secondary Sexual Characteristics - Female
  • Induced by increased LH, FSH, estrogen, and
    progesterone hormone levels
  • Pubic hair
  • Widen pelvis
  • Enlarge mammary tissue (breasts)
  • Begin menstrual cycles

8
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9
Overview of Fertilization/Development
- Weve already learned how gametes are produced
(gametogenesis) through meiosis - What process
produces every other cell in the human
body? MITOSIS
10
Fertilization
  • Occurs in upper 1/3 of Fallopian tube
  • Only 1 sperm can fertilize an egg
  • Fertilized egg zygote
  • An average woman is pregnant (gestational period)
    for 9 whole months. That is 40 weeks.

11
Zygote ? Morula
  • The zygote undergoes several mitotic divisions
    (cleavage) over a 3-4 day period
  • 2-cell ? 4-cell ? 8-cell ? 16 cell
  • Finally it becomes a (16-celled) morula. It is
    still a solid ball of cells with defining shape

12
Stem Cells
  • Totipotent cells capable of developing into all
    the different cell types
  • all cells of mammalian embryos are totipotent
    until the 16-cell stage
  • Plueripotent cells can differentiate into many
    tissues, but not all
  • Come from the ICM of blastocyst

13
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14
The Controversy
15
Morula ? Blastocyst
  • Slowing, the morula cavitates and the inner cells
    begin to migrate to one small section of the
    embroyo forming the inner cell mass (ICM)
  • The outer, trophoblast cells will become the
    placenta
  • The ICM cells will become the embryo

16
Implantation
  • As the fertilized egg developed from zygote to
    blastocyst, it was being moved down the fallopian
    tubes via smooth muscle contractions to the
    uterus
  • In apes (not like this in most species), the
    blastocyst actually digs through the uterine wall
    causing some women to experience implantation
    bleeding

17
Implantation
  • Blastocyst implants into thick walls of uterus
  • Embryo gets air and nutrients through the
    umbilical cord
  • Once pregnant, progesterone levels stay high in
    mom (pro for gestation pregnancy)
  • Moms uterus grows with the baby

18
Blastocyst ? Gastrula
  • Gastrulation The outer-wall of the blastocyst
    invaginates on itself (folds in) and three
    distinct germ layers form
  • A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that
    form during embryogenesis
  • These layers become specific structures
  • Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm

19
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20
1st Trimester 1st 12 weeks
  • Heart develops first
  • Neural tube develops
  • Tissues and organs are laid out
  • All body systems appear by Week 8
    organogenesis
  • Now a Fetus

21
2nd Trimester up to 24 weeks
22
3rd Trimester Up to 40 weeks
  • More growth
  • Kicking, rolling, stretching
  • Eyes open Week 32
  • Lungs mature
  • Rotates to head-down
  • position, unless baby is breech

23
Birth
  • Labor
  • Uterine contractions begin
  • Cervix dilates to 10 cm.
  • Birth
  • Uterus pushes baby through vaginal canal
  • Placenta delivered after baby
  • Cesarean Section (c-section) is a surgery that
    cuts through the uterus to deliver the baby if it
    cannot be born vaginally

24
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25
Throw Back
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