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Characteristics of Living Things

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Title: 6 Characteristics of Living Things Author: jeanie kellock Last modified by: Jeanie Kellock Created Date: 11/10/2004 3:01:41 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Characteristics of Living Things


1
Characteristics of Living Things
2
1. COMPOSED OF CELLS All living things are made
up of at least one cell
  • Cell
  • Basic or smallest unit of life
  • Membrane bound structure in which all life
    processes are carried out
  • All organisms are organized at the cellular
    level.

3
2. IDENTIFY AND RESPOND TO STIMULI
  • Stimulus is anything that may cause an organism
    to react - Loud noises, hunger
  • Response - the reaction to something in the
    environment - Run/cover ears, Eat/hunt for food

4
  • Homeostasis maintaining a stable internal
    environment
  • Adaptation
  • Change in traits over time that help an
    organism survive better in an environment
    inheritable changes

5
3. REPRODUCE
  •   Asexual single parent (cell) produces
    offspring identical to parent
  •   Sexual 2 parents (cells) produce unique
    offspring having characteristics or traits of
    each parent

6
  • 2 parent cells
  • 1 parent cell
  • Offspring show combination of parents (Unique)
  • Offspring identical to parent (clone)

Reproduction Pass traits onto next
generation (heredity)
  • Used to make

    more cells for growth
    replacement
  • Used to make

    new multi-celled organisms

7
4. Contain DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
  • Genetic material that contains the
    blueprints for each organism
  • Provides directions for the making of proteins

8
5. OBTAIN USE ENERGY
  • Required to carry out life processes- making and
    breaking down food, movement of materials and
    building of cells
  • Metabolism the sum of all the chemical
    processes in an organism

9
METABOLISM The Sum of All Biochemical Processes
  • Obtaining Nutrition
  • Sun is the source of most energy
  • Producers - Make food - photosynthesis
  • Consumers Eat other organisms
  • Decomposers Digest externally then absorb
    nutrients

10
1. Digestion - Breaking down of large food
particles into smaller pieces
  • 2. Respiration Mixing food with oxygen (O2) to
    release energy
  • Food O2 H2O Waste
  • Energy

3. Synthesis Process of putting together or
building up Making more cells Growth Repair
or Replace old cells
4. Excretion removal of wastes
11
6. GROWTH DEVELOPMENT
  • Growth is the increase in size of an organism
  • Surface-to-volume ratio limits how large a cell
    can grow

12
Growth in Single-Celled Organisms
  • In single-celled organisms growth occurs by an
    increase in cell size
  • Cell can either stay big or divide

13
Growth in Multi-celled Organisms
  • In multi-celled organisms growth occurs by
    production of new cells
  • Increases the total number of cells in the
    organism
  • Increases total surface to volume ratio

14
Development
  • Development is
  • all the changes an organism undergoes as it
    grows and matures 
  • Ex. Newborn puppies cant see at birth
  • Ex. Human babies develop the ability to speak and
    walk

15
7. LIFE SPAN
All organisms, and individual cells, have a
specific life span Includes Birth Death
  • Stages in Human Life Cycle
  • Birth ? Infancy ? Childhood ? Adolescence ?
    Adulthood ?
  • Advanced Adulthood ? Death

16
4 Basic Needs of All Living Things
17
Food
  • Needed to provide Energy to carry out life
    processes
  • Ultimate source of energy is the sun
  • Can get food as a producer, consumer or
    decomposer
  • Provides raw materials for growth and repair

18
Water
  • Cells contain 70 water
  •    Needed to release energy in food and for
    other biochemical reactions
  •    Required for transporting materials
    throughout organism
  •   Helps with dissolving or diluting waste
    products

19
Air or Gases
  •    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) required for
    photosynthesis - converting of energy from sun
    into food (glucose) organisms can use
  •    Oxygen (O2) required for respiration-
    releasing of energy from food (glucose) into
    energy organism can use
  •    Other gases are needed in smaller amounts for
    various life processes not required by all
    organisms

20
Environment
Biotic - living parts other organisms that meet
all 7 characteristics Living things may have to
compete for their living space
  • Abiotic-non-living parts physical features such
    as air, water, temperature (climate)
  • Must contain all the needs for that organism to
    survive
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