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U.S. Involvement in Vietnam 1945-1975

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U.S. Involvement in Vietnam 1945-1975 Into the Quagmire North Vietnam cannot defeat or humiliate the United States. Only Americans can do that. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: U.S. Involvement in Vietnam 1945-1975


1
U.S. Involvement in Vietnam 1945-1975
  • Into the Quagmire
  • North Vietnam cannot defeat or humiliate the
    United States. Only Americans can do that.
  • Richard Nixon---November 3, 1969

2
The Vietnam conflict grew directly from the
ideas, values, and policies of the Cold War
  • I. Background
  • A. An occupied country
  • B. French mid 19th century
  • C. WWII
  • D. Sept 1945 Ho Chi Minh declares
  • Vietnam a free country
  • E. French return
  • Ho Chi Minh

3
II. American Involvement
  • A. Early financial support
  • 1. Yalta agreement
  • 2. Southeast Asia strategically important
  • 3. 1950-1954 U.S. spent 2.6 billion saving
    Vietnam
  • B. Political Reasons
  • 1. Domino Theory
  • 2. Truman Doctrine
  • 3. Containment Policy
  • 4. Representation on a global scale
  • 5. U.S. parental role

4
III. French Collapse
  • A. Dien Bien Phu (1954)
  • 1. Last stand for French
  • 2. overwhelming defeat
  • 3. DMZ set up
  • 4. Vietnam split at 17th parallel
  • a. Geneva Accords

5
The French fall at Dien Bien Phu May 7, 1954
6
VI. U.S. Direct Involvement
  • A. Eisenhower April 1954
  • B. Geneva Accords
  • C. Vietnam as cornerstone of the Free World in
    Southeast Asia
  • D. Installed Ngo Dingh Diem, pres of South
    Vietnam
  • E. Kennedy
  • 1. Americas creditability
  • 2. Troop Commitment
  • 3. Tactics

7
  • F. Johnson
  • 1. LBJ on Vietnam
  • 2. LBJs shortcomings
  • 3. Opinion Polls
  • G. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  • 1. Attack on U.S. ships
  • 2. Congress passes resolution U.S.S Maddox
    under attack
  • H. Johnson defeats Goldwater
  • 1. Goldwater scares the public

8
  • I. Active Engagement
  • 1. Troop buildups
  • 2. Bombing
  • J. Strategy
  • 1. Political
  • a. Pacification
  • -hearts and minds
  • -promote political, social and economic
    well-being of South Vietnamese while
    continuing military processes

9
  • K. Military Strategy
  • 1. Pacification
  • a. purification of Political system
  • b. Phoenix Program
  • 2. Bombing Strategy
  • 3. Search and Destroy
  • 4. Escalation and Growing Skepticism
  • a. selective service (draft)

10
L. Effects on Soldiers
  • 1. Average age of soldiers 19
  • 2. Educated
  • 3. Policies were forced
  • 4. Guerilla tactics
  • 5. Many broke under strain
  • 6. My Lai Massacre

11
M. Political Dissenters
  • 1. Dangerous position in Johnsons administration
  • a. Under Sec. of State George Ball,
  • b. Pres. Press Sec. Bill Moyers
  • c. VP Humphrey
  • b. McNamara
  • 2. Casualties

12
N. The Tet Offensive 1968
  • 1. Lunar New Year
  • 2. Attack throughout South
  • 3. 5 major cites, 26 provinces
  • 4. A military defeat for Vietcong but a
    political victory
  • 5. Impact on media
  • a. Vietnam first media war

13
The Tet Offensive-Saigon-1968
14
O. Military Consequences
  • 1. more troops
  • P. Political Consequences
  • 1. before and after Tet
  • 2. LBJ did not seek the nomination
  • a. Robert Kennedy
  • Q. Tet marked the turning point in the war
  • 1. criticism grew

15
Americas Media War
16
I. Nixon-Peace with Honor
  • A. Kennedy killed June, 68
  • B. Martin Luther King April 68
  • C. Nixon wins election
  • II. Vietnamization (1968-1975)
  • A. Purpose
  • B. Ho Chi Minh dies 1969
  • C. Cambodia
  • D. Kent State and Berkeley

17
The Woodstock Music and Arts Festival August,
1969Estimated attendance 300,000
18
E. Pentagon Papers June 1970
  • 1. Daniel Ellsberg
  • F. Easter Offensive 1972
  • G. Paris Peace Talks 1972
  • H. Christmas Bombings 1972
  • I. 1973-75
  • a. Watergate Scandal begins
  • b. Nixon resigns
  • c. Saigon Falls April 30, 1975

19
Saigon Evacuation
20
III. 1976-1980
  • A. Pham Van Dong heads Socialist Republic of
    Vietnam
  • B. Jimmy Carter elected President
  • C. Vietnam invades Cambodia
  • 1. Pol Pot- killing fields
  • D. Boat people
  • E. China invades North Vietnam
  • F. Ronald Reagan elected President 1980

21
  • IV. 1981-1985
  • A. 1982 dedication of the Vietnam Wall
  • B. Vietnamese defeat Khmer Rouge Rebels

22
V. 1986-1990
  • A. George H. W. Bush elected President
  • B. Vietnamese troops leave Cambodia
  • VI. 1991-1997
  • A. Bill Clinton elected President
  • B. Washington restores diplomatic relations with
    Hanoi and lifts trade embargo
  • C. McNamara

23
VI. Casualties
  • A. 58,209 US Deaths
  • B. 2,338 MIA
  • C. 8 nurses-1 KIA
  • D. Marines lost more in
  • Vietnam than all of WWII
  • E. Vietnamese
  • best estimate
  • 4 million casualties The Wall
  • Washington, D.C.

24
VII. Lessons Learned (if any)
  • A. Hos prediction
  • B. Khrushchevs prediction
  • C. DeGaulle
  • D. U.S. Leaders
  • 1. presidential failure
  • E. Pentagon Papers
  • F. American Hubris
  • G. bombing lapses
  • H. we did not understand our foe
  • I. All subsequent wars will be compared to
    Vietnam
  • J. Returning Vets
  • K. Cynicism of Government
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