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Tips for writing outlines and essays

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Title: Tips for writing outlines and essays


1
Tips for writing outlines and essays
  • Modern Language Association (MLA) format

2
Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • Use Times New Roman, 12-point font.
  • Double space (CTRL 2)
  • Allow one-inch margins
  • In Paragraph tab, change After Spacing to 0 pt.
  • Surname in right HEADER.

3
Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • Click Insert
  • Page Number
  • Top of Page
  • Plain Number 3
  • Type your surname.
  • Hit the SPACE bar.
  • Ctrl A (to select all) and change font to Times
    New Roman 12-point
  • Close Header.

4
Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • OUT of the Header and on the left type
  • Name
  • Professor
  • Class
  • Due Date
  • Class Meeting Time

5
Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • When you read outside sources, you must include
    in-text citations.
  • Use quotation marks around information you take
    word-for-word from a source.
  • Cite information from sources, even when you
    paraphrase.

6
Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • In-text citations are necessary for directly
    quoted AND paraphrased information.
  • Place citations directly after the sentence(s)
    that contain the research.
  • ALL in-text cited sources MUST be listed on the
    Works Cited Page.

7
  •   Love is a perplexing paradox. As a little
    girl, I read stories of Cinderella and Snow White
    and imagined a handsome man appearing with a rose
    to woo me and carry me away to bliss. I never
    paused to consider any drawbacks to this fantasy,
    and have subsequently discovered how vexing love
    is. I now can denote a thousand errors in my
    husband, just as the narrator of Shakespeares
    Sonnet 141 indicates. But, like his narrator, .
    . .tis my heart that loves what they despise/
    Who in despite of view is pleased to dote (ll.
    3-4). Love traps me with invisible fencing and
    sometimes knocks me off my feet with its spark.
    I am reminded of its force and, as Rebecca
    Ferguson says, . . .nothings real but love/no
    money, no house, no car/ can beat love. . .
    (Nothings Real but Love).

8
Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • Works Cited
  • Ferguson, Rebecca. Nothings Real but Love.
    Heaven. 2011.
  • Shakespeare, William. Sonnet 141.
  • Ten Things I Hate About You. Dir. Gil Junger.
    Perf. Julia Stiles, Heath
  • Ledger, Joseph Gordon-Levitt, David Krumholtz.
    Dis.
  • Touchstone Pictures, 1999.

9
Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • The Works Cited page should begin on the next
    page after the essay ends (even if the essay
    doesnt take up all of the preceding page).
  • Hit ENTER(or insert page break) until your cursor
    gets to a new page.

10
Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • The exact title Works Cited should be centered
    at the top of the page.
  • Hit ENTER, then back space to left align your
    cursor again.
  • List sources alphabetically.
  • The first line of a sources information should
    be left aligned.

11
Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • Information that does not fit on the first line
    should be tabbed over once.
  • Type in all the information first.
  • Then place your cursor at the beginning of the
    second line.
  • Hit ENTER(you wont see anything happen).

12
Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • Then hit TAB.
  • When you ENTER again for a new source, hit the
    BACKSPACE bar once.
  • To cite Internet sources, give as many items IN
    THIS ORDER that you can find

13
Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • Author, Article Title, Online Database, Date
    published or last updated, of paragraphs in
    article, Date procured from Web, Web address (but
    you must remove the hyperlink)

14
Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • Works Cited
  • Bedingfield, Natasha. These Words. Unwritten.
    5 October 2004.
  • Shakespeare, William. Sonnet 141.
  • Ten Things I Hate About You. Dir. Gil Junger.
    Act. Julia Stiles, Heath
  • Ledger, Joseph Gordon-Levitt, David Krumholtz.
    Dis.
  • Touchstone Pictures. March 31, 1999. 99
    minutes.

15
Modern Language Association (MLA)
  • Be mindful of specific punctuation and spelling.
  • For assistance, visit http//owl.english.purdue.ed
    u/owl/resource/747/01/
  • Specifically for Internet sources visit
    http//owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/08/

16
Tips for Pre-Writing
  • Creating an outline is a powerful pre-writing
    tool.
  • It acts like a blueprint or scaffold for any
    essay.
  • See page 279 in The Writers World textbook for a
    sample.

17
Tips for Pre-Writing
  • Below the meeting time type Thesis along with
    your statement.
  • Below this, begin your outline with Roman numeral
    I.
  • This is the first main point that proves or
    defends your thesis statement.

18
Tips for Pre-Writing
  • Under I, you need A, B, C.
  • These are three examples that prove or defend the
    first main point which proves or defends the
    thesis.
  • Continue to Roman numeral II, which is the second
    main point that proves or defends the thesis.

19
Tips for Pre-Writing
  • Under II, you need A, B, C.
  • These are three examples that prove or defend the
    second main point which proves or defends the
    thesis statement.
  • Continue to Roman numeral III, which is the third
    main point that proves or defends the thesis.

20
Tips for Pre-Writing
  • Under III, you need A, B, C.
  • These are three examples that prove or defend the
    third main point which proves or defends the
    thesis.
  • You do not need include the introduction or the
    conclusion in the outline- only body paragraphs.

21
Tips for Pre-Writing
  • When you use research for the essay, the outline
    MUST also include in-text citations.
  • Be sure to use quotation marks around
    information you take word-for-word from a source.
  • Cite all information from sources, even that
    which you paraphrase.

22
Tips for Pre-Writing
  • In-text citations are necessary for directly
    quoted AND paraphrased information.
  • Place citations directly after the sentence(s)
    that contain the research.
  • ALL in-text cited sources MUST be listed on the
    Works Cited Page.

23
Tips for Pre-Writing
  • Works Cited
  • House of Plantagenet. Wikipedia. (25SEP2011)
    37. 26SEP11.
  • lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantage
    netgt.
  • Wars of the Roses. Wikipedia. (25SEP2011)
    78. 26SEP11.
  • lthttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_
    the_Rosesgt.

24
Tips for Writing Essays
  • I. Paragraph () 1 Introduction
  • A. Hook the readers with a powerful,
    interesting statement about the topic
  • B. Suggest valid points
  • C. State thesis (provable point) and supporting
    points.

25
Tips for Writing Essays
  • Remember these tips
  • Thesis must be a complete sentence.
  • Thesis must have a controlling idea.
  • Thesis must be expandable for an essay.
  • Thesis must make a valid and interesting point.

26
Tips for Writing Essays
  • Remember these tips
  • Avoid being vague
  • Love is big problem.
  • Avoid being obvious
  • Love is important.
  • Avoid being invalid
  • Love never changes.

27
Tips for Writing Essays
  • Remember these tips
  • Pre-write to determine supporting points.
  • Choose points/ideas that support the thesis
    statement.
  • Be sure that supporting points prove the thesis
    statement.

28
Tips for Writing Essays
  • II. 2 1st body
  • A. Provide transition to previous paragraph
  • B. Explain point 1 by giving three examples
    that prove this main point
  • C. Paraphrase main point and provide ending
    transition

29
Tips for Writing Essays
  • Provide transitions between paragraphs.
  • These should appear at both the beginning and the
    end of each paragraph.

30
Transcendent Transitions
  • As a whole
  • Subsequently
  • In addition to
  • Additionally
  • In juxtaposition to
  • Adjacent to
  • Arbitrarily
  • Also
  • In opposition to
  • As opposed to
  • Although
  • Hence
  • Furthermore
  • Even though
  • Over all
  • Secondly
  • However
  • Thus
  • Lastly
  • Finally
  • Next
  • First
  • Nevertheless
  • Following that
  • In the end
  • Not only
  • Besides
  • In regards to
  • As a result
  • Obviously
  • Clearly

31
Tips for Writing Essays
  • III. 3 2nd body
  • A. Provide transition to previous paragraph
  • B. Explain point 2 by giving three examples
    that prove this main point
  • C. Paraphrase main point and provide ending
    transition

32
Tips for Writing Essays
  • IV. 4 3rd body
  • A. Provide transition to previous paragraph
  • B. Explain point 3 by giving three examples
    that prove this main point
  • C. Paraphrase main point and provide ending
    transition

33
Tips for Writing Essays
  • V. 5 Conclusion
  • A. Provide transition to all previous
    paragraphs
  • B. Paraphrase all main points
  • C. Paraphrase thesis

34
Tips for Writing Essays
  • V. 5 Conclusion (continued)
  • D. End essay with a closing hook by writing a
    meaningful statement showing the great importance
    of this thesis or by giving the audience
    something on which to chew, to ponder

35
Common Errors in Writing
  • Writers often make the same mistakes, even
    seasoned writers!
  • Remember that essays are written using formal,
    professional English.
  • Essays should not sound like the way we speak to
    our friends or families.

36
Common Errors in Writing
  • Dont tell the audience what you (the writer) are
    going to say in your essay. JUST SAY IT.
  • Eschew phrases like
  • This essay will talk about. . .
  • I am going to talk about. . .
  • I am going to show you. . .

37
Common Errors in Writing
  • Eschew phrases like
  • In conclusion. . .
  • I believe. . . OR I think. . .
  • The book I read is. . .
  • My thesis is. . .
  • My first main point is. . .

38
Common Errors in Writing
  • Do not use any form of the word you. This is
    an arrogant way of viewing your (the writers)
    audience. The audience may not have had the same
    experiences or have the same perspectives as you.

39
Common Errors in Writing
  • Share personal experiences by using first person
    (I, me, etc.).
  •  
  • Or share experiences using general pronouns like
    someone, people, a person, an individual, many,
    etc.

40
Common Errors in Writing
  • Check subject-verb agreement.
  • I challenges my students.
  • She assist the residents.
  • Brittany and Ashley, who works at Dunkin Donuts
    and Cinnabon, creates decadent and delicious
    desserts.

41
Common Errors in Writing
  • Check pronoun-antecedent agreement.
  • Incorrect
  • A professor challenges their students.
  • Correct
  • A professor challenges her students.

42
Common Errors in Writing
  • Check pronoun-antecedent agreement.
  • Incorrect
  • A person enjoys music. They listen to different
    music depending on their moods.
  • Correct
  • People enjoy music. They listen to different
    music depending on their moods..

43
Common Errors in Writing
  • Do not use these words
  • thing
  • anything
  • everything something
  • nothing
  • none
  • no one
  • always
  • all
  • never
  • ever
  • everyone

44
Common Errors in Writing
  • Spell out numbers below 100 (excluding dates and
    times)
  •  Vary sentence structure
  • Check the use of there, theyre, their
  • Check the use of to, too, two

45
Common Errors in Writing
  • Underline book titles, movie titles, TV shows,
    video games, magazines, CDs
  • Use quotation marks around song titles, poems,
    chapters, magazine articles and TV episodes
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